Saturday, March 30, 2019
Text Analysis: Comparing Formal and Informal Dialogue
schoolbook edition summary comparison Formal and In formal DialogueA comparison between a formal text and an informal intercourse.1.0 IntroductionIn the traditional centering of looking at syntax, an adult, child or the learner of English as a piece language ought to gain knowledge of the syntactic rules. During speaking, the speaker unit is al ways assumed to have mastered the rules of syntax which should produce coherency in communication. Syntactic rules ar always present in the system of rules that features them, as it is assumed, merely this is not always the case. Usu al iodiney, the patterns which be always observed in linguistic data represents what is in the minds of the people who produce practic aloney(prenominal) data.In as much as thither are varied types of excoriates, article and phrasal types, at that place are ordinarily agreed rules on how languages, articles and decrys should be arranged to progress a particular meaning.2.0. Theoretical sc ope2.1 Types of execrationsThe sentences shag be categorized with syntactic rules depending on the on the types of clauses that they possess. Greenbaum (1996) besides agrees with this occurrence and defines a simple sentence as sensation with completely a pendent and a verb. For character. He went home last Thursday.He further describes a compound sentence as single with peerless or more in qualified clauses. For illustration, I have finished examinations and I know I will pass. While the other(a) category of sentence types is the labyrinthian sentences which brood of a subordinate clause supported of import by clause. For example, If the ph atomic number 53s are cheaper in Barka, I will come to cloud there.The other category is the compound-complex sentence structure which consists of dickens main(a) clauses and one main clause. For example, The lecturer believed he would pass and with higher grades after he promised to improve.2.2 article TypesWhen a group of words have a undefendable get marrieded by a predicate, it is distinguished a clause. Adjective clause finish be a sentence or constructions which look like sentences.2.2.1. Dependent and separatist clausesA clause is commonly defined as a slump of words which dwell up a subject and a verb. According to Carnie (2000), there are devil types of clauses thus, in subject clause and the second is a dependent clause. Whereas an free clause cannot stand on its own in a sentence, always pay backning with a capital letter and ending up with a punctuation, a dependent clause cannot stand alone in a sentence and must always be attached to an independent clause to obtain coherent sentences. He further adds that a clause may at time be a complete sentence as in the case of independent clause or a construction that looks like a sentence in the case of dependent clause.A dependent clause is use as an adjective in a sentence. This is referred to as a telling clause or an adjective cla use. They have a characteristic of beginning with a pronoun (that, which, whose, whom). For exampleI went to instill with that Member of Parliament whose constituency borders ours.The sentence above has two clauses. The one in the starting bracket is independent charm the second bracket is dependent. As we can see, the set-back-year makes complete meaning on its own fleck the second cannot stand alone. Again the adverbial or the subordinate clauses usually begin with a place jointure such as when, although and includes a subject or a predicate.2.2.2. Relative Clauses and Nominal Relative ClausesWhen a relation back clause has an antecedent within itself, it is referred to as a nominal relational clause dapple the relation clause is one which contains each of the relative pronouns (who which, that) to introduce a noun musical phrase or a noun.2.3 Phrase TypesA phrase, jibe to Driscoll et al (2010), is defined as a set of colligate words which occur within a sentence o r a clause. A phrase is a part of speech which has a head which defines the nature of the unit within a sentence.2.3.1 Noun Phrases in that respect is usually a thin line differentiating noun phrases and adjectival phrases in a sentence. Noun phases always consist of a head noun as well as the adjective or more adjectives which describe it. Look at the sentences belowShes an unneeded ordinary looking woman, and yet I cannot name anything out of the way.2.3.2 adjective and prepositional Phrases.According to Kohl (2008), the following are the types of phrases adjectival phrases which modify the nouns. For exampleJohn lost his red brown shoes.The other types of phrases are prepositional phrases which change state as post modifiers in a sentence. The pre-modifier in a sentence must always be an adverbial phrase while a post modifier can either be a prepositional phrase or a clause. For example Ahmed thought that the pizza smelled awfully funny.2.4. ComplementizersThe definition of complementizers according to Nelson (2002) is a complement clause which functions so as to complement adjectives, adverbs, verbs and even nouns. Complementizers can take the form of who, why, or that clauses. At times they take to-infinite clauses. For example,I dont insure why hes carrying an arrow. Here, the complement clause has sinless in the sentence, the subordinate clause. The word why acts as a complementizer.2.5. ConjunctionsThese are those parts of speech which act so as to connect the words, clauses, phrases, and sentences to give it a meaning. The most commonly utilized conjunctions are for, solely, and, yet, nor, and so. They do the work of joining the elements to form a coordinate structure. If a sentence uses a coordinate conjunction, it is referred to as a polysyndeton sentence while the one without conjunction is called an asyndeton sentence. According to Yagoda (2007), there are contrasting characteristics between the set up and rank conjunctions. These are th e coordinating conjunctions connect phrases, words and clauses of equal rank while the subordinating ones join words of unequal ranks. ExampleThere was a period in history where money and happiness were not synonymous, but now they seem to be synonymous.In this sentence, though debatable, the conjunction and compares par between money and happiness while the conjunction but unequalizes the two separate clauses (dependent and independent).2.6. AdverbialsThe adverbials in a sentence diddle the roles in terzetto categories1) adjuncts,2) conjuncts and3) disjuncts.Simmons (1997) describes that the adjuncts are found within a clausal formation while the disjuncts as well as the conjuncts are found at the end. Adjuncts do not always form a vital part of a sentence. For instance, He will in like manner pass by the hardware. In addition he adds that a disjunct identically does not form the essential sentence part. For instance, In fact, his main aim was to steal from you.There are also types of sentences which present adverbials that include conjunctions like how ever, as a result, therefore, and thus just to mention a fewer. They also present about arguments which may not be part of sentences but they reveal the yesteryear part of a sentence so as to contrast it. Example, The floods caused remainder as a result of long rains.3.0. AnalysisIn this element the principal sentence types and clauses types are going to be discussed and differences shown. Also, the analysis of example phrases and their categories are going to be considered and all the lexical and syntactic structures that are similar or difference in the two texts aboutThe justification to the Australian aborigines andThe informal dialogue between the Chinese and an Australian.3.1 Types of sentencesA sentence, according to Klammer et al (2004), is a group of words consisting of a subject and a verb. More elements can be added to the sentential verb and subject to improve the meaning.3.1.1 primary SentencesAs observed in the theoretical background, a simple sentence consists of a subject and a verb. In the first text, it is observed that there are few instance of simple sentences. The simple sentences like these come through text edition 1We reflect on their past mistreatment (line 7).text 2He sent somebody (line 35).These sentences are independent and they also contain subject and verb, qualifying them to be simple sentences.3.1.2. Compound SentencesText 1A compound sentence, Saying sorry was the new order of parliamentary business for the Labor Government led by Kevin Rudd.This is a compound sentence comprising an independent clause as well as dependent clause separated by a conjunct for.Text 2In the second text, there are a few compound sentences likeQin Shi Huang was the first emperor to control the solely of mainland chinaware. Again, the conjunct to has been used to separate the independent as well as the dependent clauses.3.1.3. Complex SentencesText 1The complex sentence is the one that begins the text on the line 1, thusEleven years after the Australian Human Rights Commission recommended a formal vindication to Australian Aborigines, Prime rector Rudd has express sorry. This is because it has an independent and one dependent clause since the first bracket shows a dependent clause while the second, an independent clause forming a meaning even without the independent part.Text 2In text 2, there exists a complex sentence like the one shown in the example below.If you drink the elixir of immortality, you can live forever. This is a complex sentence separated by comma but begins with a disjunct if. Again, the first bracket is a depedent clause while the second, is an independent one.3.1.4. Compound-Complex SentencesThe type of sentences which according to Carnie (2001), have two main clauses and at least(prenominal) one subordinate clause. They shares the characteristics of compound and complex sentences.Text 1On line 20, we meet a compou nd-complex sentence, A future day where we harness the determination of all Australians, indigenous and non-indigenous, to close the gap that lies between us in life expectancy, educational and sparing achievements and economic prospect. It has one independent clause and two dependent clauses, making it a compound-complex sentence. The first bracket is an independent clause, second is dependent while the ordinal is also a dependent one.Text 2There is no clear indication of the existence of a compound-complex sentence here.3.2 Clause Types3.2.1. main Clauses and Subordinate ClausesText 1Looking at line 4, there exists a main clause at the beginning reflection, The prime take care John Howard refused to apologise while the second sentence starts with saying straightaways Australians should not say sorry for the policies of the past.Text 2In this text, the independent clause is evident in line 13, We call him the emperor of China.And in line 6, When we had the first emperor of china, doesnt have complete meaning and needs an independent clause to support it.3.2.3 Relative clause.Relative clauses, also known as postmodifiers, modifies the noun phrase or noun which precedes them. Traditionally, the relative clauses are categorised into nominal and non-nominal relative clauses.Text 1In line 20, the following sentence is observed, A future where we embrace the possibility of the new solutions to the enduring problems where old approaches have failed. In this sentence, the realative adverb, where has been used to play the role and turn the clause into a relative noun clause.Text 2In line 20, the same relative adverb when has been used to relativize a clause when he occupied all the lands, we said he wanted to live forever.3.3. Phrase Types3.3.1 Noun PhrasesNoun phrase, according to sponger et al (2001), is defined as a word group consisting of a noun or pronoun as its head. It can be a simple one with a single noun. The noun may also in most cases be accompa nied by determiners like (a, the, he or her) and complements. Such types of sentences derived from the texts are shown belowText 1The parliament of Australia respectfully request that this apology .. this in bold shows the noun phrase.Text 2In the second text, Mh-m. China was very small. Shows another noun phrase beginning with China as a noun.Verb PhrasesText 1In the first text, a verb phrase is witnessed in line 21, for the breaking up of families, this verb phrase depicts whet the noun (Government) did to the Aborigines.Text 2The yellow emperor is the this verb phrase yellow describes the emperor as the first emperor of the whole of China.3.3.2 Adjective PhrasesAn adjective phrase is defined by Zuckermann (1997) as a word group that contains an adjective as the head. It is usually accompanied by modifiers or qualifiers. Adjective phrases are modifiers of nouns.Text 1And for the dignity and degradation of the afflicted people . The afflicted people is an adjectival phrase portra ying the type of people beingness addressed.Text 2There exists an adjective clause, the first emperor of China. This adjectival phrase precisely describes the real noun being talked about to distinguish him from other emperors.3.3.2 Prepositional phrases.Text 1The children were move in orphanages and church homes in the egg white communityThe prepositional phrases cited in line 3 have been placed in bold.Text 2Similar Chinese characters in Japanese language. The bold part shows the prepositional phrase.3.3.3 Complementers and relativisers.Text 1 analogous any other organised text syntactically, the text one has discordant situations of complementers. For example, .. resolving that this new page in history of our great spotless can now be written. That in this sentence is a relativizer.Text 2In text 2 the complementizer has been use and it is, which. For example The words which like yao. Has been joined using a complementiser, which.3.4 Coordination Conjunctions3.4.1 Co-ordinati ng ConjunctionsText 1There are many sentences, clauses and phrases in the first text where the coordinating conjuctions exist. For instance.. educational achievements and economic opportunity. The conjunct and joins the two phrases to give the whole sentence a meaning. It shows that one thing has happened and another will follow.Text IIThere are a few instances of the coordinating conjunctions in the second text, For example, words with the same pronunciation here the conjunct with joins two words with similar strengths and this is another example of a coordinating conjunction.3.4.2 rank ConjunctionsText 1In the first text, the line number 2 provides us with a good example of subordinating conjunction. It exists between a main clause and a subordinate clause. For example, the human rights commission estimated that from 1901 until 1970 more than .Text 2In the second text, we observe a subordinating conjunct because when it separates theDid not come back because if he could . This a lso separates the main clause and the subordinate clause.4.0 ConclusionsSince the two texts represent different situations, one being formal and the other, informal, it becomes hard to come up with a good unofficial of comparisons because they represent different genres. It is evident that the first text is syntactically unionised in its sentential, clausal and phrasal levels while the second is a dialogue prone to interjections so that the sentences are not formally structured. All the same, text 1 has good organization, less simple sentences but more compound, complex and compound-complex than the text 2.ReferencesCarnie, A., (2001) Syntax. Oxford Blackwell Pubishers.Driscoll, D. Brizee, A., (2010) Purdue OWL Engagement Sentence and Clause Arrangement for Emphasis. Online open at https//owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/609/04/ Accessed 29 April 2015.Greenbaum, S. Nelson, G., (2002) An Introduction to English Grammar. second ed. Edinburgh Pearson Education Limited .Hana, J ., (2011) Introduction to Linguistics Syntax. Oxford s.n.Klammer, P., Schulz, M., Volpe, D., (2004) Analyzing English Grammar. 4th ed. Longman.Kohl, J. R., (2008) the global English style Guide Write Clear, Translatable Document for a Global Market. SAS.Leech, G., Cruickshank B., Ivan R.,(2001) An A-Z of English Grammar Usage. 2nd ed. Edinburg Pearson.Simmons, R., (1997-2015) Grammar Bytes. OnlineYagoda, B., (2006) Parts of Speech, N.Y. TiMESJuly 9, , E (Magazine).Zuckermann, G., (2006) Complement Clause Types in Israeli. In W. Dixon A. Aikhenvald, eds. Complementations A Cross-Linguistic Typology. s.l.s.n., pp. 78-81.crossroads Character Analysis critical point Character AnalysisIn the play, juncture Prince of Denmark by Shakespeare, crossroadss soliloquies reveals much about his character. From to the beginning to the end of the play, junctures soliloquies reveal that he is virtuous and he is a man with courage, but is quite hesitant. In the beginning settlement expre sses that he is falter and undecided. Towards the end of the play, Hamlet still shows a everlasting sign of being reluctance. However, there are other traits that shine through from his soliloquies. Towards the end, Hamlet shows that his is an honorable man, but at the same time he is not a genuine man. These characteristics are explored through Hamlets various ways of insulting himself for not acting on his beliefs. Hamlet needs continuous reassurance from others that he is choosing the right path and proceedings with the correct actions.Hamlets first sort in the play and his early soliloquies show signs of a human without any emotional or feelings. Once Hamlet is notified about the new female monarch of Denmark Hamlet expresses to his uncle, how weary, stale, flat and unprofitable, seem to me all the uses of this world Fie ont ah fie tis an unweeded garden (1.2.135-137). Hamlet explains that the world seems to him to be quite meaningless, now that his mother is espouse to h is uncle. However, currently after, in the same soliloquies Hamlet speaks insensitively of his mother. He expresses extreme gloominess towards his mothers choice to marry his uncle. Hamlet expressed his true feelings regarding his mothers poor choice, married with my uncle, my get under ones skins brother, but no more like my father than I to Hercules (1.2.153-154). He claims that his mother disgraces his fathers name. He is quite depressed over the loss of his father and his mothers quick marriage to his uncle. Hamlet believes that no one will ever be as great as his father. He contrasts his father to his uncle, saying that Claudius and King Hamlet have nothing in common similar to himself and Hercules. In away, Hamlet is insulting himself demonstrate a sign of insecurity. The fact that Hamlet is contrasting himself to Hercules, who display a symbol of intellectual and strong-arm strength he implies that he lacks self worth and self esteem. Hamlet also shows a sign of a man wit h honor. He shows a sign of virtuous as he expresses his feelings regarding Gertrudes marriage, O, most wicked speed, to post, with such dexterity to incestuous sheets It is not nor it cannot come to good, but break, my heart for I must hold my tongue (1.2.158-161). Hamlet must restrain from telltale(a) his true feelings because he is afraid to hurt his bother. However, this decision shows that Hamlet is reluctance fix what he believes is wrong. Hamlet believes that he should not say or do anything about his mothers relationship with his Uncle. He cannot express his true feelings. evening though, he sees this as a betrayal to his father. Hamlet appears to be indecisive because he will not act as he wishes, patronage what he believes. After speaking to his fathers ghosts, Hamlet discovered new and levelheaded dedication, my sinews, grow not instant old, but bear me stiffly up. look on thee Ay, thou poor ghost, while memory holds a seat. In this put off globe. Remember thee Yea, from the table of my memory Ill wipe away all trivial fond records (1.5.94-99). In this soliloquy, Hamlet is exhibiting courage by agreeing to follow the ghosts order. Hamlet is telling himself to hold to his fathers ghosts commandment and to drop all other distractions from his mind.As the play begins to reach its raising action, Hamlet contemplates the purpose of life, to be, or not to be that is the question. Whether tis nobler in the mind to suffer. The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, or to take arms against a sea of trouble (3.1.64-67). Hamlet is still showing qualities of an indecisive human being. He cannot decide whether it is better to live with low-down or to distribute and not know what is going to happen. This soliloquy also shows a positive side of Hamlets characteristics. Hamlet expresses, that the dread of something after death, the undetected country from whose bourn. No traveler returns, puzzles the will and makes us rather bear those ills we have, than fly to others that we know not of? Thus conscience does make cowards of us all. And thus the native hue of resolution (3.1.88-92). This soliloquy also shows that Hamlet is a man of reason. He sees that it is better to live and suffer than to die and not know what is going to happen. He is not completely indecisive or loath(p) about what choices to make. He is able to contemplate the questions and the issues meet the questions which will lead him to successfully make a choice. As the play beings to reach its climax, Hamlet still shows signs of indecisiveness. Even though at times, he shows signs of being a man with honor and virtue the indecisive and reluctant in him gets worst. Hamlet plans to carry out the ghosts wish. However, he acts one way, but feels differently in his heart. This reveals that Hamlet is not a genuine person, as he expresses, now he is a-praying, and now Ill dot. And so he goes to heaven, and so am I revenged. That would be scanned A villain kills my father, and for that I, his sole, son, do this same villain send to heave. Why, this is hire and salary, not revenge (3.3.77-84). Hamlet is not able to carry out the ghosts wish because he is indecisive. For this reason, Hamlet is disappointed and frustrated with him because he has not taken the granted opportunity to avenge his fathers death by killing Claudius. Soon, Hamlet decides to end his indecisive thoughts on the act of a murderous revenge. Hamlet declares, o, from this time out my thoughts be bloody or be nothing worth (4.4.69-70). His thwarting with himself and his lack of action has driven himself to realize that it is his destiny to kill Claudius. No matter what, Hamlet will carry out the ghosts wish. In this soliloquy, it can be seen that Hamlets characteristic improves upon denouement of the play.