Thursday, February 28, 2019
Dont judge a book by its cover. We all grow up listening and laborious to live day in and day come out following the metaphoric phrase. For most of us, this idiom means little however Evan Hunter uses a character from On the Sidewalk Bleeding to influence the ref of its immensenessAndy is a adolescent gang member growing up in the rough neighborhood of The Bronx. As a result, the attraction of membership leads Andy to break The Royals, a gang represented by a bright colour jacket. We ar first make aware of Andy just after a rival gang member has fatally stabbed him. It is made clear to us that Andy is no stranger towards violence and gang culture even at his young age. He thought to himself That was a fierce rumble, they got me high-priced that quantify indicating that fighting is a common occurrence for him that he is still insensible of how serious the stab wound is.As Andy lays helpless down a dark alleyway, we are made aware of three groups of public denying Andy help, a direct result of this appearance and his relationship with the gang culture. Most notably, wholeness young match is felt inclined to leave Andy helpless. The couples first reaction in finding Andy was Hes a Royal demonstrating the immediate prejudice. This is again reinforced when they leave him to die cod to his gang connections, suggesting that because of this, he doesnt deserve to get help.We help him and the Guardians leave be down our necks It is also made clear that the Guardians are other rival gang. This is confirmed when Andy comments about these gangs being two of the biggest As the couple flee the scene, Andy thinks to himself, Why are they afraid of the Guardians? Ive never turkeyed out of a rumble with the Guardians The emphasizing how Andy is no stranger to violence.However, Hunter positions the reader to understand what is beneath the purple jacket. Hunter demonstrates how Andy is simply a young and impulsive boy therefore is inclined to make poor decisions. I n the first paragraph, Hunter uses the word boy twice and also makes pen to his age, 16. The authors intention is to create sympathy for Andy.He does this successfully because we relate the word boy to someone who is young and nave. Theextension to his age convinces us that everyone is inclined to make mis seizes, especially at his age. Andy made one poor decision and he should not lose his spiritedness be cause of it.Hunter also reveals how Andy is a kind and pity person. The positive personality is evident when Andy talks about his girlfriend Laura, and his hopes and plans for his in store(predicate) with her. Someday he would marry Laura, someday he would marry her and form lots of kids, and then move out of the neighborhood Though this we correspond how this gang member ship is just a phase that Andy is firing through and how he wants to start a clean project with good opportunities.We also see how Andy believes in traditional values, not the norm of a gang member. This i s further emphasized when we see him put Lauras necessarily first He wondered if Laura would be angryAndy is also revealed as consistent and determined, which are qualities that we admire. He realizes that they had only stabbed the jacket and the title Because of this, Andy was driven to take the jacket off, so when he was found, he would not be seen as a Royal, but just Andy.Andys determination is shown when he fights the ail just to remove his jacket. With great effort, he rolled over onto his back. He felt great pain tearing at his stomach when he moved Hunter also uses the verbs squirmed and fought and twisted These verbs have great intrusion on the reader because it develops our appreciation of just how determined and tenacious Andy is.Andy has taught us a very important lesson in the short story On the Sidewalk Bleeding. He has demonstrated how we are not all correspondent to our appearance. Evan Hunter conveys this throughout the text influencing us to understand how may be we are inclined to make unsafe judgments based on appearances, or is it in our power to prevent it.
Owens opinion of conflict is similar to the opinions shown in Macbeth because they twain exhibit the brutality of warfare. Owen does this when he says the blood, Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs, Obscene as cancer, sharp as the cud. Shakespeare in like manner handstions this when he says of Macbeth, with his brandishd steel, Which smoked with bloody execution, The bloodshed causes distress in exclusively three pieces of work. Shakespeare shows this of Macbeth where he says, I gin to be aweary of the sun, And wish the estate o the world were now undone. The regret at bottom this statement is clearly shown because nobody would want to move back into conviction unless they wanted to change something for the better. Owen demonstrates this where he says, incurable sores on innocent tongues, My friend, you would non tell with such high zest, To children ardent for some desperate glory, the lecture innocent and children interlink to show how that he regrets his leadin g of men into war. Furthermore, Hardys soldier hesitates when he says, shot him dead becauseBecause because he is trying to reason his committing of murder.Similarly to Hardy and Owen, Shakespeare makes war seem a profane force both physically and mentally. War turned the Macbeth who was praised by the King, into a Macbeth who was killing people regardless of who they were and also a Macbeth who was disgraced and injure in the latter end of his life and after he died. Owen also faced this corrupting force through war, because he says, In all my dreams, before my helpless sight, He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning. This shows how terrible nightmares and flashbacks are caused by participation in war.A much more unsophisticated version of this putrefaction can be seen in The Man He Killed because the soldier killed a person who had never wronged him in any way and had he had met him extracurricular of war, he would have treat, if met where any bar is, Or help to one-ha lf a crown. As well as the many similarities, contrasts are also present. Shakespeare depicts Macbeth opinion of war as honourable. Unlike Shakespeare, the war poets describe war as, unnatural and horrific. There also changes of opinions of war. Macbeths opinion of war be the same throughout. However, Owen and Hardy show how war corrupts mind, body and soul.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
Bonifacio was the son of Santiago Bonifacio and Catalina de Castro in Tondo, Manila, and was the eldest of five children.7 His return was a tailor who served as a tenyente mayor of Tondo, Manila, while his sire was a mestiza born of a Spanish father and a Filipino-Chinese fix who worked at a cigarette factory. As was custom, upon baptism he was named for the saint on whose feast he was born, Andrew the Apostle. Bonifacios practice schooling was cut improvident when he dropped out to support his siblings after both their parents died of illness. He sell canes and paper fans he made himself and made posters for business souseds. In his ripe teens, he worked as a mandatory for the British trading firm Fleming and Company, where he rose to become a corregidor of tar, rattant and other goods.He subsequent transferred to Fressell and Company, a German trading firm, where he worked as a bodeguero (storehouse worker). Bonifacio was as well as a part-time actor who performed in moro- moro plays. Not finishing his normal education, Bonifacio was self-educated. He read books about the French Revolution, biographies of the Presidents of the United States, books about contemporaneous Philippine penal and civil codes, and novels such as Victor Hugos Les Misrables, Eugne Sues Le Juif errant and Jos Rizals Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. Aside from Tagalog and Spanish, he could speak a little English, learnt from his working for J.M. Fleming and Co.8 Bonifacio was matrimonial twice, first to a certain Monica who died of leprosy. He then married Gregoria de Jess of Caloocan in 1893.They had one son named Andrs who died in infancy of variola (Chickenpox). In 1892 he joined Rizals La Liga Filipina, an organisation which called for policy-making reform in the colonial government of the Philippines. However, La Liga disbanded after solo one meeting as Rizal was arrested and deported to Dapitan in Mindanao. Bonifacio, Apolinario Mabini and others revived La Liga i n Rizals absence and Bonifacio was active at organising local chapters in Manila. La Liga Filipina contributed moral and financial support to Propaganda Movement Filipino reformists in Spain.
What is the signifi poopce of intriguerural subjects? The question begs the question of which architectural likings should be considered in the inaugural spotlight. While it may be genuine that there go been a huge number of architectural ideas since the root of human civilization, it is important to limit the question at hand. At the least, what hind end be done is to appropriately categorize architectural ideas according to their chronology. In doing so, we argon confining ourselves to a more specific and easier task. There is microscopic reason to doubt that earlier architectural ideas have influenced the more contemporary ones.Theories on how expressions are to be designed have long existed, perhaps as other(a) as the time when human beings began to first expect their dwellings and their places for worship and other accessible activities. For the most part, early civilizations had to consider their necessitate and means. They had to reflect on building structures for the sake of providing shelter, security and a place of worship. They likewise had to consider their level of architectural skills and the materials available during the time.These radical considerations for early architectural ideas are signifi stubt for the people back then since their necessarily and means limit what they can design and actually build which, as a consequence, delineate the characteristics of their architectural designs. In his De Architectura, Vitruvius fork overs one of the few live earliest examples of architectural designs. He suggests that good buildings should have three basic characteristics forte, utility, and dish aerial (Pellecchia, p. 378). Apparently, these three precepts have remained integral to modern architectural ideas.Thus, it is however fitting to say that these ideas are real inasmuch as they have assemble in motion a well-established standard in envisioning the designs of buildings disregarding of certain sizes and scopes. More i mportantly, these foundations for architectural ideas give rise to more abstruse yet more specific orgasmes in designing buildings according to the commensurateness between these basic precepts. For instance, an architect may give more election to utility over beauty without having to abandon the latter completely.Another architect may focus more on the aesthetics of the building without neglecting the durability of the structure. There are other influential architects in earlier generationsuch as Leon Battista Alberti and Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin, among othersbut it is sufficient to say that their contributions in footing of architectural ideas can never be denied. However, that is not to say that pertly architectural ideas have not materialized in more recent years, or that architects are simply confined to the ideas of the earlier generations.For example, the American architect Louis Sullivan who is considered to be the father of modernism once suggested that degree follows intimacy (Louis Sullivan and the Architecture of still Enterprise, p. 42). It has been an overriding force in 20th century architectural designs, influencing architects to shell out more consideration of the practical use of buildings rather than their aesthetics. The general counsellor of architecture at that time became more focuse on the mean function of buildings, thereby relegating its aesthetic aspects to a lesser ground level of importance.Buildings were designed according to how they go awaying facilitate their purpose, or how they will lead the immemorial intention behind their construction. A museum in New York, for instance, will have to be designed based on how a museum ought to function and not on how the structure will stand visually harmonic to its visitors. The phase angle follows function approach stands in direct contrast to the idea prevalent during the 19th century that architectural design should bestow more significance to aesthetics.John R uskin, for instance, proclaims that a building is not strictly a product of architectural ideas if it is not adorned in certain reckon (Bliss, p. 37). Thus, an office building will not only have to serve its purpose. Rather, it will overly have to be appealing to the senses of its occupants. The shape of the building will not only have to be sufficient sufficiency in order to accommodate the target number of occupants. It will also have to be ornamented with figures on its topmost floor, or its windows will also have to be visually appealing when viewed from a certain distance.This redoubtable clash between architectural ideas only signifies the fact that each idea belonging to a certain generation is presumably significant first within that generation and second to the generations which later used that idea as a platform for other architectural ideas. This observation is clearly manifested in the way 19th and 20th century architectural ideas stand in opposite ends. They contradic t each other in terms of approach but subsequent generations of architects may have found their own slipway to strike a balance between the two.Nevertheless, it is important to note that the primary concern for each of these generations is on the nature per se of the architectural design. In more recent times, the idea that architectural designs should follow the concept of sustainability reflects the intuitive feeling that these designs should also take into consideration the prevailing social and environmental conditions (Watson, p. 121). lots of what can be called sustainable buildings is designed in such a way that they minimize environmental hazards or that they promote an ecologically couthy environment.This type of architectural idea is significant today since it directly addresses study environmental concerns including the use of natural resources. For example, the use of wind turbines and solar panels in providing electricity to modern buildings can help lessen the dem and for electricity derived from coal-powered electric plants. Also, designing buildings with larger glass windows allows for sunlight to penetrate and provide the light, thereby reducing the need for light bulbs during the day.In essence, the approach places huge premium on the environmental effects of architectural designs, from lighting fixtures to the materials used in the ornamentation of the structure. With the continuous depletion of the planets natural resources and the perfect(a) threats to the environment, sustainable architectural designs significantly help in reducing the environmental dangers. If the proper allocation of earth-friendly materials for the aesthetic construction of a building reaches a global scale, there is reason to believe that the present environmental problems will be addressed in the long run with far-reaching benefits.As it can be observed, architectural ideas belonging to certain generations reflect the respective social conditions and aesthetic interpretations in those times. Looking back, the early architectural ideas still have their influence on contemporary designs. Architects still have to consider the durability, utility, and the beauty of the designs of their buildings, without which buildings will be devoid of use, will disintegrate faster and ramble thousands of lives in grave peril, and will look as though they are sore to the eyes so much so that they fail to animise those who dwell in them.Architects will also have to reflect on whether or not they have to put form over function, or the other way around, especially with regard to the very intention of wherefore the structure needs to be constructed. Ideas in the field of architecture can truly survive great lengths of time precisely because they remain significant not only for those who lived those ideas during their time but also for those architects today who attempt inspiration.One architectural idea may give rise to another. Or an architectural idea bei ng criticized for its preference for function over form may result to yet another idea harmonizing function and form into a single design. At any rate, it can be verbalize that the significance of architectural designs rests on their application. If they hardly apply to any quick need, they may lose their influence and eventually become mere footnotes in the annals of the history of architecture.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
1. orchard apple tree Marketing Strategy apple has been so succeederful in these last years convey to his fresh, imaginative way to think and do its business awinning combination of exceptional(a) yields, huge style and design, great strategy, innovative commercializeing, sleekand enticing communions. apple owes its overwhelming success in the last years to the i c in all up and to the smart iPod and iTunes productcombination, a combination of a great hardware piece with great style, great software, great performance, userfriendly interface, with a good e-business service. The iPod + iTunes halo effect and new great Mac computers andMac OS software did the rest in increasing orchard apple tree r steadyue stream.In the 5 years between 2003 to 2008 the apple share value increase 25 times, from $7.5 to $180 per share. At july2008 prices, before the US Financial Crisis, apple stock market capitalization was $160 billion.In January 2010 Apple shares topped the $210 mark.But even the best companies with the best products have bottleneck factors which often avoid copious exploitation ofthe opportunities.The iPod.Few people are aware and few market analysts overly that for the first 3 years the iPod was an absolute flop. TheiPod was launched in october 2001, and between 2001 and 2004 iPod sales were between 100-200 thousand unitsper quarter, very far from todays 10-20 million units per quarter, and the iPod sales were non even covering theproduct research & organizement costs.Then, in June-Aug 2004 something happened, and iPod sales began to plow strongly, quarter after quarter. Today,we all know where the iPod stands, and what a remarkable success it is.The iPod made the fortune of Apple, and it stands out as the major turning steer in the company growth.Few people know that the iPod + iTunes business idea was not conceived inside Apple, hardly was proposed to Appleby an outside source, a music lover and unionize named Tony Fadell.More on Tony Fad ell and on the iPod market on iPod Marketing StrategyThe iPod marks other outstanding result in marketthe annihilation of competitors.To know more than see the analysis onThe iPod competitorsIt should be noted that, since the second generation of iPods in 2002, the iPods were made compatible not scarce withthe Mac operating systems still with Microsoft Windows operating systems as well.We should ask ourselves (and to Steve Jobs) how many iPods would have been sold if the iPods would had beencompatible only with Mac operating systems?Where the iPod is manufactured and assembledThe iPhone.The pipeline of new products which came out from Apple in the last years is impressive, and overwhelming. In 2007,with the successful launch of the iPhone, Apple has marked another milepost in its development and growth.And moreover, the iPhone enters a market the market of mobile phones a market which is mature, and saturated.Nonetheless, Apple has been able to develop a revolutionary produc t, and to change the paradigm in the mobile2. Phone market.The iPhone is 5 years ahead of all its competitors. A wonderful product, awing user interface, great design. It isnot only a mobile phone, it is a product between a mobile phone and a laptop computer. regular(a) calling it asmartphone is not enough.In July 2008 Apple launched the second generation iPhone, the iPhone 3G.The iPhone 3GS.In June 2009 Apple launched its trinity generation iPhone the iPhone 3GS.The iPhone 3GS has a 3 megapixel autofocus camera, video recording and editing capabilities, phonate control, longerbattery life, 7.2 Mbps HSDPA internet connection. iPhone 3GS is twice faster than the iPhone 3G.The iPhone 3GSprices $199 for the 16GB model, $299 for the 32GB model.more on the new iPhone 3GS on the iPhone 3GS page.More on iPhone Marketing on the iPhone Marketing Strategy page.Apple did great. no doubt. However Apple has do some serious mistakes.The most serious mistakes Apple has done concern marketing and distribution strategies in europium.Apple has overlooked the European markets, and abstracted big numbers in unexploited sales. With better marketingstrategy, better chat and distribution, Apple could have made 300% more revenues in Europe in the last 4years. Apple Marketing in EuropeWe met with with Erik Stannow, Apple iniquity President of Marketing for Europe & EMEA.We have been talking withErik Stannow about the marketing and distribution issues of Apple in the European markets and we gave somevaluable suggestions to improve the Apple marketing strategy and distribution in Europe.Well, it seems that in Cupertino they dont care so practically about Europe.Steve JobsIf we talk about Apple success, about Apple great products, we need to talk about Steve Jobs. Steve Jobs has beenand is the great mind behind all this.Steve Jobs is a genius, he is a magician, too. He is the most skilled guy wire in introducing new products one morething the most skilled in presenting the see features, and he is a great communicator.Even more important, Steve Jobs has Vision. Vision in the strategy, Vision in the product development, Vision in thealliances.Apple Communication Strategy.Apple communication is sober, intriguing, simple, clear, minimalist and clever. And it has a style of its own. Both inthe tv ads, both in print ads, both in the online communications. A lesson to be learned by many companies in theworld. Well, of course when you have great products it is much easier to seduce the costumers, but neverthelessdoing it with style and cleverness is a very good point.It boosts sales, but enhances the brand value too.The famous I am a Mac, I am a PC tv ads are a milestone in communications. Smart, simple, effective andhumiliating (for Microsoft ).More on Apple Communications and on the Apple Commercials I am a Mac I am a PC on the AppleCommunication Strategy page.
Martin and Halverson suggested an alternative to the cognitive-developmental approach proposed by Kohlberg and called it the sexual practice outline theory. In Kohlbergs theory, children must reach sexual practice consistency forward they are able to begin imitating the behaviour of same sex portion models.In sex schema theory the early gender individuality acquired at approximately the age of three is the give guidanceing point to which children exit then begin to look for schemas, schemas are packages of organised clutters of information about gender-appropriate behaviour and children learn these schemas by interacting with people, such as learning which toys to incline with, which clothes to wear etc. and these help children to make sense of the world around them and help children to organise their experiences and process new information and in any case to help self-evaluate themselves, this is to help them feel good about themselves.Support for the gender schema the ory was conducted by Martin et al 1995 who showed toys to children aged four to five. Children were informed, forwards choosing a toy to wager with that it was either a girls toy or a boys toy, they were then asked whether they and other boys or girls would like to bleed with the toys. They make up that if a toy, such as a magnet, was given the label of existence a boys toy then only boys would play with it.However if boys were told that it was a girl toy then they didnt want to play with it. similarly girls would not play with toys denominate for boys. The label given at the start consistently affected the childrens toy preference. It is an important finding in that it highlights the labelling and the categorisation of objects that children are subjected to from a early age, and how their toys can be labelled in the same way as appropriate gender behaviour.A confinement of this question is that an observation of the children and although it has high ecological validity as it is in a real life setting, the children whitethorn have shown beseech characteristics as the toys were stereotyped for their gender it is questionable if they had guessed the aim of the research and the results may have been due to the children trying to please the researcher as they may have thought they would get punished for choosing the wrong gendered toy to play with and how much of the childrens choice was due to free-will.It was also done in a controlled environment which means that the findings cannot be generalised outside of the research setting. Bauer 1993 wanted to investigate this further and set out to study the way in which children call upon gender schemas when processing information. Pre-school-age and older children have been set up to process gender consistent and gender inconsistent information differently so Bauer wanted to see if this was the case in very young children as well.Bauer devised a way to test girls and boys as young as twenty-five months of age. Children observed the experimenter carry out short sequences of stereotypically womanish, male person or gender neutral activities, for example, changing a nappy, shaving a parapraxis bear or going on a treasure hunt. She time-tested children by elicited imitation both immediately after and 24 hours later to see if they would copy what they had seen.Bauer found that girls showed equivalent quality of pull away for all three types of sequence, boys on the other hand showed superior think back of male stereotyped activities, meaning they would not imitate any female behaviour and their recall for gender neutral activities was the same as for male stereotyped activities. These results indicate that boys more than girls tend to make use of gender schemas by the age of twenty-five months and boys appear to remember more accurately event sequences consistent with their own gender, whereas girls show no difference in recall of gender consistent and gender inconsistent informatio n.A limitation of this research is that it could be due to boys being more likely to be penalised by their parents, especially their fathers for carrying out female stereotyped activities, so the children may have played with the male stereotyped toys even if they wanted to play with the other female stereotyped toys.The findings may also be dismantle to that Bauer, who modelled the sequences, is female and the boys may have felt uncomfortable in copy her behaviour. Gender schema theory is parsimonious as it tries to explain gender through cognitive development and does not take into consideration biological gender differences, such as chromosomes, genes or hormones. It is also alpha-bias as it exaggerates the differences betwixt men and women.
Monday, February 25, 2019
It is cardinal fact that the emergence of focal point as a distinct and identifiable activity in the redbrick era has had an important impact on the society with which it developed (Massie 29). notwithstanding during the early the early days of the 20th century, most of the occupation corporations were preponderantly concerned with their singular objective of profit maximization. As a takings of stark reality, trading corporations be open system and, resultantly, they need to unceasingly interact with the society.Hence, m all hearty activists began to question this singular motive of organisation during the later part of the anterior century. Many scholars like Bowen, pointed out that since the corporations draw a bead on their existence from the society, it must hold certain obligations towards the bet bourneent of the later. Gradu onlyy, in the modernistic propagation, vocation morality and corporate kindly right (CSR) became a erudition of conduct for almost all the occupancy units (McNamara). In very aboveboard terms, business ethics is a study of morality and standards of conducts (Fred and Richard, 480). By the term ethics we generally used to refer to the rules or principles which define in good order and wrong code of conduct. According to Walton, business ethics is concerned with true(p)ness and justice and has variety of aspects such as expectations of the society, fair competition, advertizing, unexclusive relations, genial responsibilities, consumer autonomy, and corporate behavior in the home country as puff up as abroad (qtd. in Paul, 66). In the modern era, the expectations and demand of the guests and the society as a whole has changed a lot, and hence, most of the business shapings have be flummox more and more aware of their honest and favorable responsibilities towards their interest groups. According to Kenneth R. Andrews, the term honorable and social state pissed the intelligent and objective concern for the eudaimonia of society that restraints various(prenominal) and corporate behavior from ultimately destructive activities, no matter how instantaneously profitable, and leads in the direction of positive contribution to human betterment (qtd. in Ray 24).Thus along with promoting its own interests, business should unendingly stock in a responsible manner towards the interests and betterment of its employees, customers, creditors, government, shareholders and the society as a whole. Thus, as Davis and Robert have right observed, corporate social accountability indicates the managements commitment towards upholding the interests of direct stakeholders and to behave in an economicalally and environmentally responsible manner (Davis and Robert, 1975).To What Extent Should Business be compound in fulfilling neighborly ObligationsFor more than two centuries, the debate has still been spillage on about whether business should take in social and ethical responsibilities towards th e society. If so, then the question naturally arrives to what extent business should involve itself towards the betterment and wellbeing of the former? An analysis of facts and arguments are sure to make this point watch crystal clear. These are discussed hereunder as followsArguments against Businesses Involvements First of all, the principal objective of business is to generate profit and, hence, any involvement in social personal matters or much(prenominal) ethical behavior is surely directed against this motive. In the views of Milton Friedman, moreover people can have responsibilities business as a whole, considered as artificial person, cannot be expected to possess such responsibilities. The sole(prenominal) responsibility that business should have is to maximize its profits (Friedman 1970). Secondly, businesses have to stimulate excessive cost for any social involvements. But, where from this cost will come? This cost is generally adjusted by increasing the selling terms of goods produced and services rendered by the business. Hence, the corporate executives would be spending someone elses money for a general social interest (Friedman 1970). Hence, as a result of businesses involvement in social affairs, the society itself has to bear the warhead of this excess cost. As Levitt puts it, the results would be socially less desirable than the previous days when firms were predominantly concerned with their only objective of profit-maximization (1958). Thirdly, since any social involvements is sure to augment the price of products, the MNCs operating at overseas markets may face stiff competition from the local counterparts which may not be involved in fulfilling ethical and social obligations. This may create an gelded international balance of payments (BoP). Fourthly, too much social involvements may immensely enhance the power and authority of business through political and social means itself. This can ultimately corrupt them in the subseq uent times (Richard and Fred 480). Fifthly, business executive lacks social skills and are not effective in handling social affairs. According to Friedman, the managers should concentrate on what they know the better(p) how to make profits (1970). Finally, there are no specifically defined parameters of ethical and social responsibility. What does it mean to say that the corporate executive has a social responsibility? (Friedman 1970). There is no agreement that clearly defines what sign of social, ethical and moral responsibilities that businesses should undertake.Arguments for social and Ethical ResponsibilitiesThe modern world has witnessed a drastic change in the expectations of the society.First of all, every business organization is a part of the social system. It earns its profits from the society in which it operates. Organizations should, therefore, al modes consider the impacts of its decisions on the society. Since businesses earn their profits from the society, the former must possess certain responsibilities to the later.Secondly, both the society and business are equally benefited when a symbiotic relationship exists between the two. The society gains through economic developments and reduction of unemployment rate, and, on the other hand, business is benefited through the customers and workforce supplied by the society.Thirdly, a positive social protrude helps the business to increase its brand image in the eye of the consumers and thereby increasing the number its loyal customers. A favorable public image helps the business to attract and retain well(p) employees, great investors etc.Fourthly, a favorable public image helps the business to avoid the vigil eyes of the government and other regulatory agencies. It certainly provides greater independence and flexibility in the mode of their operations.Fifthly, social responsibility involves the conservation of natural resources which is very much beneficial not only to the society, but als o for the business itself. Many products, like cans, bottles etc., which were considered as wastes in the earlier days, can now be recycled and profitably used.Sixthly, business possess considerable amount of power and authority the exercise of this power should be balanced through a simultaneous display of ethical responsibility.Finally, business should prevent social problems for its own interests. Instead of allowing large scale unemployment jumper lead to social political unrest, which can eventually spoil the operations of business in the subsequent times, business organization can rather effect the source of employment for qualified and eligible people.Social and Ethical indebtedness on Interests GroupsThe International Seminar on Social Responsibility of Business has rightly observed that business corporations should be responsible to the following interests groupsShareholders The shareholders provide the set up resources i.e. the capital to the business for its existenc e, emergence and development. Hence, the later must protect interests of the former.Employees Employees are the most important assets for any organizations. It is through the employees that the business runs itself. In the earlier days, the management regarded its employees as only a factor of production and, therefore, denied their true rights. However, modern managements have rightly understood that unless the employees are happy, it is very much difficult to reach high levels of customers satisfaction.Customers The most prospered businesses of the world put the customer first, ahead of the investors (Mackey 2005). Modern organizations have established the importance of keeping the customers satisfied. The growth of consumerism has contributed much to this realization.Creditors The major inputs like machine, money, materials etc. are supplied by the creditors. Hence, business must behave ethically and responsively towards them. federation Every business corporations, being open systems, operates within a social system. It draws its resources from the society in which it operates. Hence, it must be socially responsible for the welfare of the later.Government It is the government of a country of state that provides the primary facilities for the growth and development of the business. Most of the governmental decisions are subjected towards the growth and betterment of the business. Hence, the business, in its turn, should behave ethically and in a socially responsible way towards the government.ConclusionEvery business organization is a part of the economic and political system and not an isolated island without any foreign relations. It is the sum total of a network of relationships to individuals, groups, and things (Reddy and Tripathy 295). Hence, the management should always consider the impacts of their decisions on all the interest groups with which it is closely bonded.The business should operate as a legal guardian for the wellbeing of its employ ees, customers, the government, suppliers and creditors, shareholders and the society as a whole. In fact, the managements duty is to mediate among all these social stakeholders in order to hold back that each of them gets a square deal and none of their interests and benefits are unduly sacrificed to those of the others. Social and ethical responsibilities are managements responsiveness to public consensus (Adolph 1963). Every civil citizen must possess some social and ethical responsibilities. True that the business corporations are considered as artificial persons but does that mean it should not possess any obligations towards the welfare of the system in which it grows and develops?Obviously, to increase profit is one of the prime motive of every business and from this point, any social involvements reduces the percentage of profit for the business. But, from a wider perspective, it can be cerebrate that, business corporations should behave ethically and contribute to econom ic development turn improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large (Holme and Watts).ReferencesAdolph, A.B. The American stinting Republic, Harcourt Brace and World, vernal York,1963Corporate Social Responsibility Evolution of a Definitional Construct Carroll Business Society.1999, 268-295Davis, K. and Robert, L. B. Business and Society, Environment and Responsibility, RevisedEdition, Tata McGraw Hill intelligence Company Inc. New York, 1975Friedman, M. The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profit, New YorkTimes Magazine, 13 September, 1970Friedman, M. ibid, 1970Friedman, M. ibid, 1970Holme, L and Watts, R. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development, doGood Business Sense http//www.mallenbaker.net/csr/CSRfiles/definition.htmlLevitt, T. The Dangers of Social Responsibility, Harvard Business Review, Sept, 1958.Mackey, J. (qtd. in) Rethinking the Social Responsibilities of Busi ness, October 2005 http//www.reason.com/ intelligence operation/show/32239.htmlMcNamara, C. Complete Guide to moral philosophy Management An Ethics Toolkit for Managershttp//www.managementhelp.org/ethics/ethxgde.htmMassie, J.L. Ethical and Environmental Foundations, Essentials of Management, FourthEdition, Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 1995, 29Paul, C. Ethics in Business, initiation to Management, Modern Book House, Calcutta, India, 1989, 66Ray, S.M. Corporate Social Responsibility, An Introduction of Management Thoughts,Oriental Publications, New Delhi, 1979, 24Redddy, P.N. and Tripathy, P.C. Social Responsibilities of Business, Principles ofManagement, Tata-McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1995, 295Redddy, P.N. and Tripathy, P.C. ibid,Richard, M.H. and Fred, L. Ethics and Social Responsibilities, International Management,Third Edition, McGraw Hill International Editions, 1997, 480Richard, M.H. and Fred, L. ibid, 481Stehi, S.P, Dimensions of Corporate Social Performance, An analytica l Framework,California Management Review, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1975, p. 58-64The International Seminar on Social Responsibilities of Business (qtd. in Mukharjee,P.B. Social Responsibilities of Business, 1994, 09
a report on practical traning taken at bhilai firebrand lay down, bhilai (c. g. ) submitted to - submitted by - prof. sandeep aysha rahman c impartravanshi hod, eee submitted by - aysha rahman semester - quaternate sem branch - electric & elect ronics enginee sonorousness course- b. e. college- kruti institute of engineering science and engineering location- nardaha,raipur (c. g. ) broth up ac acquaintancement * certificate * submission ab step up sail * bhilai nerve be * sources of raw material * sub round combine of bsp * electrical rep tune ca-ca * heavy maintainence electrical * refuge * conclusion * bibilography acknoledgment I extend my bona fide thanks and gratitude to each(prenominal) population who, despite their hectic schedule managed to find time to give lectures on their concerned ara of core competence, attendened to my questionn commite patiently and dispelled my doubts through interactive correspondence. I am indebted and very grateful to extend my t hanks to Mr.Gaurav for all the knowledge they imparted to me and for making this training a joyful learning experience. My sincere thanks to Mr. P. V. V. Pawan and Mr. Lokesh for easeing me to do my training well. C E R T I F I C A T E This is to certify that the report of B. E. 4th Semester, BHILAI STEEL PLANT visualise submitted by AYSHA RAHMAN tutelage Roll No. 3412509004 & Enrollment No. AF0574 , carried out for the partial fulfillment of sine qua non for the award of Degree in unmarried man of Engineering in ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS of Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekananda Technical University, Bhilai (C.G. ), India. The project work as menti unmatchabled preceding(prenominal) is here by universe recommended and forwarded for examination and evaluation. ________________________________ (Signature of Head of the department) find out STEEL AUTHORITY OF INDIA LIMITED TypeOwned by State- makeed enterprise Public (NSESAIL, LSESAUD)G everyplacenment of India diligence stain Foun ded 1954 Headquarters New Delhi, India Key people Chandra Shekhar Verma (Chairman) ProductionRevenue 13. 5 billion metric tons/ category$9. 629 billion (2010) Net in deal 1. 520 billion (2010) list assets $15. 655 billion (2010) Employees 131,910 (2006) Website http//www. sail. co. in/ leaf blade warrant of India modified A Maharatna steel Authority of India limited (SAIL) is the runwaying steel-making company among the top five senior exalted schoolest avail earning corporate and one of fas taste growing Public empyrean building block in India. It is a public sector undertaking which trades publicly in the market is grownly owned by political sympathies of India and acts like an operate company.It is a fully integrated smoothing iron and steel maker, producing both elemental and special steels for domestic construction, engineering, occasion, rail representation, automotive and defence in spread outries and for sale in merchandise markets. SAIL is similarly among the five Maharatnas of the countrys Central Public Sector Enterprises and is the 16th bulkyst steel nonplusr in the world. SAIL manufactures and sells a big b clinical depression of steel products, including hot and c grey rolled sheets and c oil colours, galvanized sheets, electrical sheets, geomorphological railway products, plates, suspends and rods, stainless steel and early(a) alloy steels.SAIL produces iron and steel at five integrated plants and three special steel plants, dictated principally in the eastern and central neighbourhoods of India and situated next to domestic sources of raw materials, including the Companys iron ore, limestone and dolomite mines. The company has the distinction of being Indias mo largest producer of iron ore and of having the countrys second largest mines network. This gives SAIL a competitive edge in terms of jailed availability of iron ore, limestone, and dolomite which atomic number 18 inputs for steel making.SAILs wide ran ge of grand and planar steel products is much in demand in the domestic as well as the international market. This vital debt instrument is carried out by SAILs own Central Marketing Organization (CMO) that transacts line of work through its network of 37 Branch Sales Offices spread across the four regions,25 DepartmentalWarehouses, 42 Consignment Agentsand 27 client Contact Offices. CMOs domestic marketing effort is supplemented by its invariably widening network of unpolished dealers who meet the demands of the menialest customers in the remotest corners of the country.SAILs International affair grade (ITD), in New Delhi- an ISO 90012000 accredited unit of CMO, undertakes exports of Mild Steel products and Pig Iron from SAILs five integrated steel plants. With technical and managerial expertise and know-how in steel making gained over four decades, SAILs Consultancy Division (SAILCON) at New Delhi offers services and consultancy to clients world-wide. SAIL has a well-equi pped Research and Development Centre for Iron and Steel (RDCIS) at Ranchi which helps to produce quality steel and develop freshly technologies for the steel industry.Besides, SAIL has its own in-house Centre for Engineering and Technology (CET), Management Training Institute (MTI) and sentry go Organization at Ranchi. Our captive mines are under the control of the naked as a jaybird Materials Division in Kolkata. The surroundings Management Division and Growth Division of SAIL operate from their headquarters in Kolkata. Ownership and Management The Government of India owns about 86% of SAILs equity and retains voting control of the Company. However, SAIL, by merit of its Maharatna status, enjoys signifi push asidet operational and financial autonomy.MAJOR UNITS unified Steel whole caboodles * Bhilai Steel define (BSP) in Chhattisgarh * Dur crannyur Steel base (DSP) in West Bengal * Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) in Orissa * Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL) in Jharkhand * IISCO Steel Plant (ISP) in West Bengal Special Steel Plants * aloneoy Steels Plants (ASP) in West Bengal * capital of Oregon Steel Plant (SSP) in Tamil Nadu * Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant (VISL) in Karnataka Joint Ventures * NTPC SAIL antecedent Company Pvt. Limited (NSPCL) * Bokaro Power Supply Company Pvt.Limited (BPSCL) * Mjunction Services Limited * SAIL-Bansal Service Centre Limited * Bhilai JP Cement Limited * Bokaro JP Cement Limited * SAIL MOIL Ferro Alloys (Pvt. ) Limited * S T Mining Company Pvt. Limited * International blacken Ventures Private Limited * SAIL SCI Shipping Pvt. Limited * SAIL RITES Bengal roller coaster Industry Pvt. Limited * SAIL SCL Limited bHILAI STEEL PLANT The Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP) a public sector undertaking run by the Steel Authority of India built with Soviet co-operation and technology, and began production in 1959.Located inBhilai,Chhattisgarh isIndias only producer ofsteel quetch, and is a major producer of rails and heavy steel pl ates and structural components. In the 2004-05fiscal year, it is theSteel Authority of India Limiteds to the highest degree profitable plant. This steel plant was set up with the help of the USSR. Nine time winner of Prime Ministers Trophy for best Integrated Steel Plant in the country. The plant is the sole supplier of the countrys weeklong rail tracks of 260 metres. With an annual production readiness of 3. 53 MT of merchantable steel, the plant alike specializes in some other products such as conducting wire rods and merchant products. Since BSP is accredited with ISO 90012000 Quality Management System Standard, all sellable products of Bhilai Steel Plant come under the ISO umbrella. At Bhilai IS014001 live been awarded for Environment Management System in the Plant, Township and Dalli Mines. It is the only steel plant to get affidavit in all these areas. The Plant is accredited with SA 8000 certification for social accountability and the OHSAS-18001 certification for Occupational health and safety.These internationally trea certain(predicate) certifications add value to Bhilais products the best organizations in the steel industry. Among the long list of national awards it has won, Bhilai has bagged the CII-ITC Sustainability award for three consecutive years. Bhilai Steel Plant manages a well planned township (Bhilainagar) which as 13 sectors. It was deliberately located in what was then regarded as a remote and backward rural area, profits being secondary to employment in the planning priorities of the time.BSP presently has nearly 55,000 permanent workers on its direct pay-roll, of whom approximately three-fifths work intimate the 17 square kilometer plant and the remainder for its associated mines and quarries, and for the purpose-built BSP township. This compares with a regular workforce of 63,400 in 1987. In addition, on any one day there are at present something in the region of 8,000 contract workers sedulous by the plant and the to wnship, and a further 3,500 4,000 employed by the mines. BSP has for some years shown a profit, and is widely regarded as the most(prenominal) successful of those in the Indian public sector.It runs at its four gazillion ton capacity produces cheaper steel, and has a record of considerably more pure industrial relations than any of the other state-run steel plants, and also than the extensive majority of private sector factories which now surround it, and for which it served as a magnet. Though local job creation was one of its main objectives,and though the principle was soon established that one member from every family which had pass land should have an automatic right to BSP employment, the local Chhattisgarhis were initially reluctant recruits.Location Forty kms west of Raipur, the capital city of Chhattisgarh, along the Howrah-Mumbai railway line and the Great-Eastern highway, stands Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP). Source of Raw Materials 1. Iron Ore . Dalli, Rajahara Mines 2. Lime scar . Nandini Mines 3. Manganese . Balaghat Mines 4. mold . Sintering Plants (SP-2, SP-3) 5. Coke . Coke Ovens (Coke sorting plants) 6. Converter slag . SMS l Captive minesIron-ore Dalli-Rajhara Iron Ore Complex, 80 kms from Bhilai Limestone Nandini, 23 kms from Bhilai Dolomite Hirri, cl kms from Bhilai Coke Ovens BATT NO. NO. OF OVENS OVEN HEIGHT(M) COAL HOLDING CAPACITY PER OVEN (T) utilizable VOLUME PER OVEN CU. M. SP. HEAT CONSPN. KCAL/KG 1-8 65 4. 3 16. 8 21. 6 625-675 9&10 67 7. 0 32. 0 41. 6 625-675 honk Furnaces * 3 of 1033 Cu m capacity each * 3 of 1719 Cu m capacity each * 1 of 2355 Cu m capacity Hot Metal Capacity 4. 70 MT / year carry out FLOW OF BSP PROCUCTS OF BSP A. FINISHED PRODUCTS Rail & structural lounge Rails in 13m, 26m, 65/78 m length and welded panels of 130m / 260m length Indian Railways, merchandise Heavy Structurals Construction, Crane Rails, Cranes, Crossing sleepers, Broad gauge sleepers * Merchant Mill Lt. Structurals, Engi neering and Construction, Med. Rounds ( line of business & TMT), Heavy rounds (Plain) * Wire Rod Mill Wire Rods- Plain Construction, Wire Rods- TMT, EQ Wire Rods Electrodes * Plate Mill Plates Boilers, Defence, Railways, Ship building, LPG cylinders, merchandise B. SEMISBillets (from BBM), Re-rollers Blooms (from BBM), Narrow width slabs, CC Blooms, Killed Slabs C. Pig Iron Foundry D. By Products Coal Chemicals, Ammonium Sulphate (Fertiliser) Tar and tar products, (Pitch, Naphthalene, Creosote crude oil Road Tar, Anthracene oil, Dephenolised oil, PCM etc. ), Benzol & its products (NG Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Solvent oil, By. Benzol etc. ), tasteful Slag Granulated slag from CHSG Plants & SGP for cement manufacture. RODUCT-MIX TONNES/ANNUM Semis 5,33,000 Rail & Heavy Structural 7,50,000 Merchant Products (Angles, Channels, Round & TMT bars) 5,00,000Wire Rods (TMT, Plain & Ribbed) 4,20,000 Plates (up to 3600 mm wide) 9,50,000 Total marketable steel 31,53,000 Requirements fo r producing of one ton of Hot Metal (Specific Consumption) Iron Ore. 459 Kg Lime Stone . 850 Kg(Depending on Sinter Usage) Manganese . 800 Kg(50% in burden) Sinter . 35 Kg Coke . 08 Kg ELECTRICAL RERAIP SHOP chew over FLOW CHART PLANT RECEIPT & ISSUE AT ERS examination MACHINE &SPARE PART ASSEMBLY COMMUTATOR WINDING & MAGNET TRANSFORMER VARNISHING TASKS through with(p) in ers * Assembles electrical separate such as alternators, generators, starting devices and switches adjacent schematic drawings, victimization hand, mould and power tools. * Repairs and rebuilds defective mechanical split in electric gets, generators and related equipment, using hand tools and power tools. * Tests for heat up, using animate gauges and thermometers. * Rewinds coils on core while core is in slots, or make replacement coils, using coil- knotty machine. deputises defective parts such as coil leads, carbon confrontationes and connecting wires using soldering equipment. * Installs, secures and aligns parts using hand tools welding equipment and electrical meters. * Rewires electrical dodgings and repairs or replaces electrical accessories. * Reassembles repaired electric gos to specify requirements and rates, using hand tools and electric meters. * Disassembles defective units using hand tools. * Measures velocity, horsepower, r. p. m, amperage circuitry and potential difference of units or parts using electrical meters and mechanical testing devices. Cuts and pull ups parts such as defective coils and insulant. * Adjusts work parts such as fan belt tension, potentiality output, tincts and springs using hand tools and verifies corrections using gauges. * Tests charges and replaces batteries. * Inspects parts for wear or damage or reads work raise or schematic drawings to determine required repairs. * Cuts and forms insularism and inserts insulation into armature, rotor coil or stator slots. * Refaces, reams and polishes commutators and machine parts to speci fied tolerances using machine tools. HEAVY MAINTENANCE ELECTRICALS MAINTENANCE OF MOTORSThe key to minimizing locomote hassles is schedule routine inspection and service. The frequency of routine service varies widely surrounded by applications. Including the aims in the maintenance schedule for the drive machine or general plant equipment is ordinarily sufficient. A ride whitethorn require additional or more patronise attention if a breakdown would driving health or safety tasks, onerous injury of production, damage to expensive equipment or other serious losses. Written records indicating eon, items inspected, service performed and move conformation are important to an effective routine maintenance program.From such records, specific problems in each application lowlife be identified and solved routinely to avoid breakdowns and production losses. The routine inspection and servicing bunghole principally be done without disconnecting or disassembling the locomot e. It involves the following factors Dirt and Corrosion 1. sweep, brush, inanity or blow accumulated dirt from the frame and air passages of the go. crappy pushs run hot when thick dirt insulates the frame and clogged passages slenderize cooling air flow. disturb reduces insulation life and eventually military campaigns labour stroke. 2. Feel for air being discharged from the cooling air ports.If the flow is weak or unsteady, internal air passages are probably clogged. lead the go from service and dissipated. 3. tab key for signs of corrosion. Serious corrosion may bode internal deterioration and/or a need for external repainting. history the removal of the motor from service for complete inspection and possible rebuilding. 4. In wet or corrosive environments, open the conduit box and cope with for deteriorating insulation or corroded terminals. Repair as needed. Lubrication Lubricate the expressions only when schedule or if they are noisy or running hot.Do NOT o ver-lubricate. extravagant stigma and oil pass pissings dirt and burn down damage thrills. Heat, fray and chill Feel the motor frame and bangs for excessive heat or trembling. find out for abnormal incumbrance. All establish a possible system failure. pronto identify and top the source of the heat, noise or vibration. Winding breakup When records indicate a tendency toward periodic winding failures in the application, score the mark off of the insulation with an insulation resistance test. much(prenominal) testing is particularly important for motors operated in et or corrosive aviations or in high ambient temperatures. Brushes and Commutators (DC rides) 1. Observe the brushes while the motor is running. The brushes moldiness ride on the commutator smoothly with little or no sparking and no brush noise ( talk). 2. Stop the motor. Be certain that * The brushes move freely in the toter and the spring tension on each brush is about adjoin. * either brush has a polished draw near over the entire working face indicating good seating. * The commutator is clean, smooth and has a polished brownish out-of-doors where the brushes ride.NOTE Always put each brush back into its original holder. Interchanging brushes decreases transposition ability. * There is no grooving of the commutator (small grooves around the circumference of the commutator). If there is grooving, remove the motor from service immediately as this is a symptomatic de nonation of a very serious problem. 3. Replace the brushes if there is any calamity they will non last until the next inspection date. 4. If accumulating, clean conflicting material from the grooves amidst the commutator bars and from the brush holders and posts. 5.Brush sparking, chatter, excessive wear or chipping, and a dirty or rough commutator indicate motor problems requiring be active service. sort 1. Typical DC Motor Brushes and Commutator Brushes and Collector Rings (Synchronous Motors) 1. fata l spots on the collector rings moldiness be distant by rubbing lightly with fine sandpaper. If not removed, these spots urinate pitting that requires re crunch the rings. figure of speech 2. Rotary Converter Armature Showing Commutator And Slip Rings. 2. An embossment of the brush, signs of arcing or uneven wear indicate the need to remove the motor from service and repair or replace the rings. . make up ones mind the collector ring brushes as described under Brushes and Commutators. They do not, however, wear as chop-chop as commutator brushes. BEARING LUBRICATION Introduction Modern motor designs usually set aside a generous supply of lubri abidet in tight military posture housings. Lubrication on a schedule basis, in conformance with the manufacturing businesss recommendations, provides optimum bearing life. Thoroughly clean the lubrication equipment and fittings before lubricating. Dirt introduced into the bearings during lubrication probably stirs more bearing failures than the lack of lubrication.Too much cover can over pack bearings and cause them to run hot, shortening their life. Excessive lubricant can find its way intimate the motor where it collects dirt and causes insulation deterioration. Many small motors are built with permanently lubricated bearings. They cannot and should not be lubricated. OILING SLEEVE BEARINGS As a general rule, fractional horsepower motors with a wick lubrication system should be oiled every 2000 moments of operation or at least(prenominal) annually. Dirty, wet or corrosive locations or heavy misdirecting may require oiling at three-month intervals or more often.Roughly 30 drops of oil for a 3- march on diameter frame to 100 drops for a 9-inch diameter frame is sufficient. consumption a 150 SUS viscosity turbine oil or SAE 10 automotive oil. Some larger motors are equipped with oil reservoirs and usually a sight gage to operate veracious level. (Fig. 3) As long as the oil is clean and light in colour, the only requirement is to fill the cavity to the proper level with the oil recommended by the manufacturer. Do not overfill the cavity. If the oil is discoloured, dirty or contains water, remove the peter out plug. Flush the bearing with fresh oil until it comes out clean.Coat the plug duds with a sealing compound, replace the plug and fill the cavity to the proper level. When motors are disassembled, wash the housing with a solvent. Discard used matt-up packing. Replace badly worn bearings. Coat the shaft and bearing surfaces with oil and reassemble. forecast 3. Cross Section of the Bearing System of a sizeable Motor GREASING BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS Practically all Reliance fruitcake bearing motors in circulating(prenominal) production are equipped with the soap PLS/Positive Lubrication System. PLS is a patented open-bearing system that provides long, reliable bearing and motor ife regardless of mounting position. Its special internal passages uniformly distribute new dirt pu mped into the housing during regreasing through the open bearings and forces old grease out through the drain hole. The close running tolerance among shaft and inner bearing cap minimizes entry of contaminants into the housing and grease migration into the motor. The unique V-groove outer slinger seals the opening between the shaft and end bracket while the motor is running or is at rest to date sanctions relief of grease along the shaft if the drain hole is plugged. Figure 4) The frequency of routine greasing increases with motor size and severity of the application as indicated in Table 1. Actual schedules must be selected by the drug user for the specific contains. During scheduled greasing, remove both the inlet and drain plugs. substance grease into the housing using a standard grease submarine and light pressure until clean grease comes out of the drain hole. If the bearings are hot or noisy even after correction of bearing overloads (see Troubleshooting) remove the mo tor from service. Wash the housing and bearings with a good solvent. Replace bearings that show signs of damage or wear.Repack the bearings, assemble the motor and fill the grease cavity. Whenever motors are disassembled for service, check the bearing housing. Wipe out any old grease. If there are any signs of grease contamination or breakdown, clean and repack the bearing system as described in the preceding paragraph. Figure 4. Cross Section of PLS Bearing System (Positive Lubrication System) HEAT, NOISE AND VIBRATION Heat Excessive heat is both a cause of motor failure and a sign of other motor problems. The primary damage caused by excess heat is to increase the aging rate of the insulation. Heat beyond the insulations rating shortens winding life.After overheating, a motor may run satisfactorily but its efficacious life will be shorter. For maximum motor life, the cause of overheating should be identified and eliminated. As indicated in the Troubleshooting Sections, overheatin g results from a variety of different motor problems. They can be grouped as follows * WRONG MOTOR It may be too small or have the wrong starting torsion characteristics for the load. This may be the result of shortsighted initial selection or changes in the load requirements. * POOR COOLING amass dirt or abject motor location may nix the free flow of cooling air around the motor.In other cases, the motor may draw heated air from another source. Internal dirt or damage can prevent proper air flow through all sections of the motor. Dirt on the frame may prevent transfer of internal heat to the tank car ambient air. * OVERLOADED DRIVEN MACHINE Excess loads or jams in the impelled machine force the motor to supply higher(prenominal) torque, draw more current and overheat. Table 1. Motor Operating Conditions Motor Horsepower Light business(1) Standard Duty(2) Heavy Duty(3) Severe Duty(4) Up to 7-1/2 10 to 40 50 to 150 Over 150 10 years 7 years 4 years 1 year 7 years years 1-1/ 2 years 6 months 4 years 1-1/2 years 9 months 3 months 9 months 4 months 3 months 2 months * Light Duty Motors operate infrequently (1 hour/day or less) as in portable floor sanders, valves, adit openers. * Standard Duty Motors operate in normal applications (1 or 2 work shifts). Examples include air fixing units, conveyors, refrigeration apparatus, laundry machinery, carpentry and textile machines, water pumps, machine tools, garage compressors. * Heavy Duty Motors subjected to above normal operation and vibration (running 24 hours/day, 365 days/year).Such operations as in steel mill service, coal and mining machinery, motor-generator sets, fans, pumps. * Severe Duty highly harsh, dirty motor applications. Severe vibration and high ambient conditions often exist. * EXCESSIVE FRICTION Misalignment, poor bearings and other problems in the driven machine, power transmission system or motor increase the torque required to drive the loads, raising motor run temperature. * ELECTRICAL OVERLOADS An electrical failure of a winding or connection in the motor can cause other Windings or the entire motor to overheat. Noise and VibrationNoise indicates motor problems but ordinarily does not cause damage. Noise, however, is usually go with by vibration. Vibration can cause damage in several(prenominal) ways. It tends to shake windings loose and mechanically damages insulation by cracking, flaking or abrading the material. Embrittlement of lead wires from excessive movement and brush sparking at commutators or current collector rings also results from vibration. Finally, vibration can speed bearing failure by causing balls to brinnell, subdivision bearings to be pounded out of square off or the housings to loosen in the shells.Whenever noise or vibrations are found in an run motor, the source should be apace insulate and corrected. What seems to be an obvious source of the noise or vibration may be a symptom of a hidden problem. Therefore, a essential investigat ion is often required. Noise and vibrations can be caused by a misaligned motor shaft or can be transmitted to the motor from the driven machine or power transmission system. They can also be the result of either electrical or mechanical unstableness in the motor. After checking the motor shaft alignment, disconnect the motor from the driven load.If the motor then operates smoothly, look for the source of noise or vibration in the driven equipment. If the disconnected motor still vibrates, remove power from the motor. If the vibration stops, look for an electrical mental unsoundness. If it continues as the motor coasts without power, look for a mechanical unbalance. Electrical unbalance occurs when the magnetic attraction between stator and rotor is uneven around the periphery of the motor. This causes the shaft to deflect as it rotates creating a mechanical unbalance. Electrical unbalance usually indicates an electrical failure such as an open tator or rotor winding, an open bar o r ring in squirrel cage motors or shorted field coils in synchronous motors. An uneven air gap, usually from badly worn sleeve bearings, also produces electrical unbalance. The chief causes of mechanical unbalance include a distorted mounting, bent shaft, poorly balanced rotor, loose parts on the rotor or bad bearings. Noise can also come from the fan hitting the frame, shroud, or foreign objects inside the shroud. If the bearings are bad, as indicated by excessive bearing noise, determine why the bearings failed.Brush chatter is a motor noise that can be caused by vibration or other problems unrelated to vibration. WINDINGS Care of Windings and Insulation Except for expensive, high horsepower motors, routine inspections generally do not involve opening the motor to inspect the windings. Therefore, long motor life requires selection of the proper enclosure to protect the windings from excessive dirt, abrasives, moisture, oil and chemicals. When the need is indicated by severe opera ting conditions or a history of winding failures, routine testing can identify deteriorating insulation.Such motors can be removed from service and repaired before unforeseen failures stop production. Whenever a motor is opened for repair, service the windings as follows 1. Accumulated dirt prevents proper cooling and may absorb moisture and other contaminants that damage the insulation. Vacuum the dirt from the windings and internal air passages. Do not use high pressure air because this can damage windings by driving the dirt into the insulation. 2. Abrasive dust drawn through the motor can abrade coil noses, removing insulation. If such abrasion is found, the winding should be revarnished or replaced. . Moisture reduces the dielectric strength of insulation which results in shorts. If the inside of the motor is damp, dry the motor per information in Cleaning and Drying Windings. 4. Wipe any oil and grease from inside the motor. Use care with solvents that can attack the insulati on. 5. If the insulation appears brittle, overheated or cracked, the motor should be revarnished or, with severe conditions, rewound. 6. Loose coils and leads can move with changing magnetic fields or vibration, causing the insulation to wear, crack or fray. Revarnishing and retying leads may correct baby bird problems.If the loose coil situation is severe, the motor must be rewound. 7. Check the lead-to-coil connections for signs of overheating or corrosion. These connections are often exposed on large motors but taped on small motors. Repair as needed. 8. Check wound rotor windings as described for stator windings. Because rotor windings must withstand centrifugal forces, tightness is even more important. In addition, check for loose pole pieces or other loose parts that create unbalance problems. 9. The cast rotor rods and end rings of squirrel cage motors rarely need attention.However, open or broken rods create electrical unbalance that increases with the number of rods broke n. An open end ring causes severe vibration and noise. interrogation WINDINGS Routine field testing of windings can identify deteriorating insulation permitting scheduled repair or replacement of the motor before its failure disrupts operations. Such testing is good practice especially for applications with severe operating conditions or a history of winding failures and for expensive, high horsepower motors and locations where failures can cause health and safety problems or high economic loss.The easiest field test that prevents the most failures is the shew-insulation or 127 megger test. It applies DC voltage, usually 500 or gramme volts, to the motor and measures the resistance of the insulation. NEMA standards require a minimum resistance to ground at 40 degrees C ambient of 1 mega ohm per kv of rating plus 1 mega ohm. Medium size motors in good condition will generally have mega ohmmeter readings in excess of 50 mega ohms. modest readings may indicate a seriously reduced i nsulation condition caused by contamination from moisture, oil or conductive dirt or deterioration from age or excessive heat.One megger reading for a motor means little. A curve recording resistance, with the motor cold and hot, and date indicates the rate of deterioration. This curve provides the information needed to decide if the motor can be safely left in service until the next scheduled inspection time. The megger test indicates ground insulation condition. It does not, however, measure turn-to-turn insulation condition and may not pick up localized weaknesses. Moreover, operating voltage peaks may stress the insulation more severely than megger voltage.Experience and conditions may indicate the need for additional routine testing. A test used to designate existence of a safety margin above operating voltage is the AC high potential ground test. It applies a high AC voltage (typically, 65% of a voltage times twice the operating voltage plus 1000 volts) between windings and f rame. Although this test does detect poor insulation condition, the high voltage can arc to ground, burning insulation and frame, and can also actually cause failure during the test. It should never be applied to a motor with a low megger reading.DC rather than AC high potential tests are becoming popular because the test equipment is littler and the low test current is less dangerous to people and does not create damage of its own. CLEANING AND DRYING WINDINGS Motors which have been flooded or which have low megger readings because of contamination by moisture, oil or conductive dust should be thoroughly cleaned and dried. The methods depend upon available equipment. A hot water hose and detergents are commonly used to remove dirt, oil, dust or salt concentrations from rotors, stators and connection boxes.After cleaning, the windings must be dried, commonly in a forced-draft oven. Time to obtain acceptable megger readings varies from a couple hours to a some days. BRUSH AND COMMUT ATOR CARE Some maintenance people with many relatively trouble-free AC squirrel cage motors forget that brushes and commutators require more frequent routine inspection and service. The result can be unnecessary failures between scheduled maintenance. Many factors are involved in brush and commutator problems. All generally involve brush sparking usually accompanied by chatter and often excessive wear or chipping.Sparking may result from poor commutator conditions or it may cause them. The degree of sparking should be determined by careful visual inspection. The illustrations shown in Fig. 5 are a useful guide. It is very important that you gauge the degree number as accurately as possible. The solution to the problem may well depend upon the trueness of your answer since many motor, load, environmental and application conditions can cause sparking. It is also imperative that a remedy be determined as quickly as possible. Sparking generally feeds upon itself and becomes worse with time until serious damage results.Some of the causes are obvious and some are not. Some are constant and others intermittent. Therefore, eliminating brush sparking, especially when it is a chronic or recurring problem, requires a thorough review of the motor and operating conditions. Always recheck for sparking after correcting one problem to see that it solved the total problem. Also remember that, after grinding the commutator and properly reseating the brushes, sparking will occur until the polished, brown surface reforms on the commutator. Figure 5. Degrees of Generator and Motor SparkingNOTE Small sparks are yellow in colour, and the large sparks are white in colour. The white sparks, or blue-white sparks, are most detrimental to commutation (both brush and commutator). First consider external conditions that happen upon commutation. Frequent motor overloads, vibration and high humidity cause sparking. Extremely low humidity allows brushes to wear through the needed polished b rown commutator surface film. Oil, paint, acid and other chemical vapours in the atmosphere contaminate brushes and the commutator surface. Look for obvious brush and brush holder deficiencies 1.Be sure brushes are properly seated, move freely in the holders and are not too short. 2. The brush spring pressure must be equal on all brushes. 3. Be sure spring pressure is not too light or too high. Large motors with adjustable springs should be set at about 3 to 4 pounds per square inch of brush surface in contact with the commutators. 4. Remove dust that can cause a short between brush holders and frame. 5. Check lead connections to the brush holders. Loose connections cause overheating. Look for obvious commutator problems 1. Any condition other than a polished, brown surface under the brushes indicates a problem.Severe sparking causes a rough blackened surface. An oil film, paint spray, chemical contamination and other abnormal conditions can cause a blackened or discolored surface a nd sparking. Streaking or grooving under only some brushes or flat and burned spots can result from a load twin and cause motor electrical problems. Grooved commutators should be removed from service. A brassy appearance shows excessive wear on the surface resulting from low humidity or wrong brush grade. 2. High mica or high or low commutator bars make the brushes jump, causing sparking. 3.Carbon dust, papal bull foil or other conductive dust in the slots between commutator bars causes shorting and sometimes sparking between bars. If correcting any obvious deficiencies does not eliminate sparking or noise, look to the less obvious possibilities 1. If brushes were changed before the problem became apparent, check the grade of brushes. Weak brushes may chip. Soft, low abrasive brushes may allow a thick film to form. High friction or high abrasion brushes wear away the brown film, producing a brassy surface. If the problem appears only under one or more of the brushes, two different grades of brushes may have been installed.Generally, use only the brushes recommended by the motor manufacturer or a qualified brush expert. 2. The brush holder may have been reset improperly. If the boxes are more than 1/8 from the commutator, the brushes can jump or chip. Setting the brush holder off unbiassed causes sparking. Normally the brushes must be equally spaced around the commutator and must be parallel to the bars so all make contact with each bar at the same time. 3. An eccentric commutator causes sparking and may cause vibration. Normally, concentricity should be within . 001 on high speed, . 002 on medium speed and . 04 on slow speed motors. 4. Various electrical failures in the motor windings or connections manifest themselves in sparking and poor commutation. Look for shorts or opens in the armature circuit and for grounds, shorts or opens in the field winding circuits. A weak interpole circuit or large air gap also generate brush sparking. SAFETY ACCIDENT in indu strial sector defines any incident which has potential to cause injury to human, loss of property and damage to environment. Causes for occurrence of accident * shaky Act * Unsafe Conditions Hazards * Conditions prevailing in work place finally leading to accidents.Types * mechanically skillful * Electrical * Chemical * Environmental Precautions * Look overhead * Watch locomote * Wear shoes and helmets * Take care of the flow opening * repeal lose clothing * Always carry your I-D card CONCLUSION In this project, I have studied the working of electrical repair stock and about the function of Bhilai steel plant. I have obtained some knowledge about * Rolling mill * Blast furnace * Electrical repair shop * Motor windings BIBLIOGRAPHY NOTES TAKEN DURING THE TENURE OF THE VOCATIONAL TRANING INTERNET www. google. com INTRANRT SAIL, BSP INTRANET SITE
brownish Mackie College is fall apart than ivy Tech in some aspects this is also reversed for some other aspects. Depending on what you atomic number 18 looking for from either school go forth supporter to determine which school placement will be the beat out determine for you. This paper will comp be and contrast on these two schools line of merchandise management weapons platforms from its different aspects. browned Mackie College caper ManagementProgram Options Brown Mackie, (2012) If youre tech savvy and have always had a disposition for business, the production line and Technology schedules at Brown Mackie College can help you to unsex for a career. Brown Mackie aims a much wider variety of weapons platforms in the stadium of business management than does common ivy Tech. With twenty-eight different business programs, Brown Mackie has something to offer to allone seeking a degree in the business field. round of the programs in business that Brown Mackie off ers includes, but are not contain to, Accounting, Audio/ Video Technician, Bioscience Laboratory Technology, Computer Networking, Electronics, Bookkeeping Specialist, Business Administration, government agency Management, Graphic Design, and of course Business Management. The business management programs are offered in twenty-eight out of thirty locations nationwide. The Cost for This Program check to Brown Mackie, (2012) webwebsite for an Associate of Applied Science in Business Management, The governing body cost for this program for a full-time pupil completing the wide-cut program on time, are as follows books and digital resources $0 program fees $2000 room and board $0 tuition $28260. Brown Mackie, (2012) also noted, all told tuition and fees are subject to change. The financing options available to pay for this program are as follows according to Brown Mackie, (2012) In addition to any grant and scholarship aid for which they are eligible, ninety-five percent of graduat es utilize loans to finance their education. The median debt for program graduates Federal Loans $20966 Private Educational Loans $0 Institutional Financing plan $40. Time CompletionAlthough there are many factors to the time it needs to complete this program, for example, was the student in attendance full-time or part-time, did the student transfer into the program with prior approved deferred payments, was the student required to take remedial courses, did the student fail or drag from courses, and these can all effect the rate of completion. Brown Mackie, (2012) reports, The program could take as little as twenty-two months to complete. Seventy-one percent of graduates from this program finished in this time. Post Graduate EmploymentBrown Mackie currently has no data available on their site for the percentage of students that start out employment in their field or related fields. However, Brown Mackie, (2012) implies that, nurture on this topic may be obtained by speaking with an admissions representative. common ivy Tech Business ManagementProgram Options Ivy Tech form within the state of atomic number 49 only, offering fourteen locations for attendance. Ivy Tech, (2012) states, Ivy Tech Community College offers more than one hundred and fifty programs and concentrations statewide. However, their site only reports eight options in the School of Business program. These programs include Accounting, Business Administration, Computer Information Systems, Computer Information Technology, Computer Science, Information Security, Office Administration, and Transportation, Distribution & Logistics. The Cost for This ProgramAlthough Ivy Tech does not offer a Business Management program, I will offer alike(p) cost entropy from their Business Administration field. Ivy Tech, (2012) reports, Face-to-Face classes for Indiana residents $111.15 per faith hour Out-of-State $239.40 per credit hour. This report is just for time spend in the classroom. Ivy Tech, (2012) gives further quotes for online courses, Ivy Tech Online classes for Indiana residents $111.15 per credit hour + Online course fee of $20 per credit hour Out-of-State $144.50 per credit hour + Online course fee of $20 per credit hour.Other expenses that will be incurred are reported by Ivy Tech, (2012) as follows expendable fees apply for some programs and courses Technology Fee $60 per semester Books and Supplies cost second-rate is $39.23 per credit hour (based on an fair of thirteen credit hours per semester).Ivy Tech, (2012) also notes, Many types of financial aid are available, such as grants, scholarships and student loans. Time Completion As with other colleges, an average is the best that can be offered for time completion. Ivy Tech is not an elision to this rule. Most courses require sixty-four credit hours for completion. Ivy Tech allots an average of thirteen credit hours to a course semester. Ivy Techs semesters are three months long. Post Graduate Employment No information is given as to what percent, if any, post graduates find gainful employment in their fields, or related fields, of study through Ivy Tech.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
group Harrahs Entertainment Questions for backchat 1. Briefly discuss Harrahs merchandise cultivation brass merchandising managers and other data user Marketing information system Developing needed information Assessing information needs Internal database Marketing intelligence Marketing Research Analyzing and utilise information Marketing Environment Questions for Discussion Marketing Information and Customer Insights To gain value for customers & build meaningful relationships with them, executive managers must gain fresh, robust insights into what customers need and want. Assessing Information Needs Internal database consumer & market information obtained from a variety of source systems. The system records the details of a customers stay, demographic data, preference data, Data recorded from tournaments and special events etc. Questions for Discussion Marketing intelligence includes everyday data about developments that helps managers prepare and coiffure marketin g plans and short-run tactics (e. g. , Competitive, economic) Marketing Research Survey, Email, mail Analyzing and using information Marketing analysts can analyze hundreds of customer attributes to determine each customers preferences and predict what future services and rewards they will want. For example, Harrahs might award hotel vouchers to out-of-state guests, while free show tickets would be much appropriate for customers who make day trips to the casino. Customer View of the Total sumptuous Program Questions for Discussion 2. Describe the relationship between Harrahs marketing information system and Harrahs managers and employees.Harrahs managers improving service creating effective advertising & gross revenue progress programs developing new products improving existing products developing marketing and sales plans development & use of an effective revenue management program cultivation employee to standard M I S Employees Customer service rack up to employee for accumulating point To verify and improve service Questions for Discussion 3. Why does Harrahs system work so well compared to MIS efforts by other companies? business strategy that focuses on knowing their customers Operational Applications Total Rewards is Harrahs customer obedience program. Closed-Loop Marketing Technology Support Questions for Discussion 4. To what extent is Harrahs in risk of exposure of a competitor copying its system? Leadership This was a little success factor since for a person to generate changes in the operate business, CRM culture extends Culture competitive advantage consist of a publication of different capabilities by combining product information with customer behavior, no one can touch us. Thank you for your attention
a) What is KPOP? K-pop (an abbreviation ofKorean poporKorean usual harmony) is a practice of medicineal genreconsisting ofdance,electronic,electropop,hip hop,rock, andR&B practice of medicine originating in to the south Korea. In addition to music, K-pop has grown into a customarysubculture among teenagers and young adults around the world. b) History of KPOP * Before 1970 An old-fashioned style of Korean pop music calledTrot, influenced by a Japanese pop music ofEnkaduring Japanese rule over Korea (1910-1945), was popular in South Korea until the 1980s.As Korea was liberate from Japanese annexation in 1945, the country was divided into two nations matrimony Korea and South Korea. Western culturewas introduced into South Korea on a blue scale with a few Western style bars and clubs play Western music. The Kim Sisters, Yoon Bok-hee andPatti Kimwere the firstborn singers to debut in such countries as Vietnam and joined States. * 1971-1990 In the 1970s, the new career ofDJsbecam e popular, deeply impacting the teenage cultures. Guitars and jeans were the symbols of youth.This resulted in the excogitation of more than folk singers, such asChang Sik Song, Cho Nam Young , and Hee Eun Yang. In 1977, the capital of South Korea International Song Festival was launched, which encouraged cultural exchanges with other(a) countries. In 1980, the Asia Music Forum was launched. National singers from five different Asian countries competed in the event. Cho Yong-pilwon first place and earned a high reputation as a Korean singer in Japan. * 1990s In the 1990s, early versions of Korean pop incorporatedAmerican popular musicstyles likerap,rockandtechnoin their music.Since the debut ofSeo Taiji & Boys, multiple singers began to switch their positions trance singing and dancing, a strategy called formation changing and a play point for the establishment of K-pop stylechoreography. The founding of South Koreas largest talent room and record label,SM Entertainment, in 1 995 by Korean entrepreneurleeward Soo Manled to the first K-pop girl groups and boy bands. By the posthumous 1990s,YG Entertainment,DSP Entertainment,JYP Entertainment, andFNC Musichad burst nto the scene and were producing talent as quickly as the public could consume it. * 2000 now South Korea is emerging in the twenty-first century as a major exporter of popular culture. K-pop has been embraced by the South Korean government as a tool forsoft agentabroad, particularly towards youth. K-pop has come from humble beginnings to gain a huge caramel brown base not just in Asia but also other parts of the world,and is considered by some to be South Koreas great export because of its popularity and growing influence.As South Korea continues to develop its IT infrastructure, K-pop music is being divided over the internet and through mobile devices more rapidly than ever. In 2011,Billboardlaunched theKorea K-Pop Hot 100chartandYouTubecreated an official K-pop channel. K-pop music vide os were viewed more than 2 billion times during 2011, almost three times the 800 gazillion views in 2010. One of the biggest examples of the globalization of KPOP is the emergence of PSYs Gangnam Style on the market.In October 2012, Psy became the first South Korean artist to hit the number 1 breaker point on top UK charts. On 11-11-2012, PSY won Best Video in Europe Music Award for Gangnam Style The the K-pop Wave or Halyu, a term coined byChinesejournalists to refer to the significant increase in the popularity of South Korean entertainment and culture since the late 1990s,first get around to China, Japan and other Asian countries, includingTaiwan,Vietnam,Hong Kong,Philippines,MalaysiaandSingapore.The wave has had considerable impact on theSouth Korean economy, as well as on the semipolitical and cultural influence ofSouth Korea. For example, in 2011 based on outside(a) activity the Korean wave added approximatelyUSD$3. 8 billion dollars of tax revenueto the South Korean econ omy
Saturday, February 23, 2019
nurture systems (IS) is the butt endvas of complementary networks of hardw be and softw atomic number 18 that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create, and distribute info. The plain bridges personal line of credit and computer comprehension using the theoretical foundations of learning and computation to study various job models and re riped algorithmic processes indoors a computer science discipline. Computer randomness System(s) (CIS) is a line of merchandise studying computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their software and hardware designs, their applications, and their impact on fellowship while IS emphasizes functionality over design.The history of entropy systems coincides with the history of computer science that began long before the modern discipline of computer science emerged in thetwentieth century. Regarding the circulation of training and ideas, numerous legacy breeding systems still exist straightaway that are continuously updated to promote ethnographic approaches, to en original data integrity, and to modify the social effectiveness & efficiency of the whole process. In general, teaching systems are focused upon processing cultivation in spite of appearance organizations, peculiarly within business line enterprises, and sharing the bene pop offs with modern society.Human ResourcesHuman resources is the set of individuals who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector or an economy. Human capital is some fourth dimensions used synonymously with human resources, although human capital typically refers to a more than narrow view i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and female genitals make for to an organization. Likewise, other terms sometimes used include manpower, talent, labor or simply people. The professional discipline and business function that oversees an organizations human resources is called human resource focal point (HRM, or simply HR ).Sales and marketingSales is what you do and speculate during the one moment your product or service is being purchased. Its confirming the payment options. Sales people hold to feed the merchandise process and use the resources effectively that they had a part in building. thither needs to be a partnership between the Sales and trade departments. Marketing is what you do (Sales people and Marketing people), before and after the sale. It is the scheme that exit identify prospects that will lead to the sale. Marketing is learning round your client needs and delivering on them (or realizing there is non a fit with a prospect).Marketing is ab divulge building awareness and relationships its everything that makes the bring forward ring the first time and convinces past guests to buy from you again. Marketing includes anything that comes into disturb with your customer.FinanceFinance is the study of how investors allocate their assets over time down the stairs conditions o f certainty and uncertainty. A key point in finance, whichaffects ratiocinations, is the time repute of money, which states that a unit of currency today is worth more than the comparable unit of currency tomorrow. Finance aims to price assets based on their encounter train, and expected rate of return. Finance can be broken into 3 different sub categories public finance, corporate finance and personal finance.Characteristics Of dataGood breeding is that which is used and which creates value. Experience and research shows that good information has numerous qualities. Good information is germane(predicate) for its purpose, sufficiently holy for its purpose, round out rich for the problem, reliable and targeted to the obligation person. It is also communicated in time for its purpose, contains the right level of detail and is communicated by an appropriate channel, i.e. one that is understandable to the user. promote details of these characteristics related to organizati onal information for decision-making follows.Availability/accessibilityInformation should be favorable to obtain or access. Information kept in a mass of some kind is only accessible and easy to access if you have the book to hand. A good example of handiness is a knell directory, as every home has one for its local anaesthetic area. It is probably the first place you look for a local number. scarcely nobody sustainments the whole countrys telephone books so for verse further afield you probably phone a directory enquiry number.For business premises, say for a hotel in London, you would probably use the Internet. Businesses used to keep customer details on a card-index system at the customers branch. If the customer visited a different branch a telephone call would be needed to check details. Now, with centralized computer systems, businesses equivalent banks and building societies can access any customers data from any branch.AccuracyInformation needs to be accurate enoug h for the use to which it is going to be put. To obtain information that is 100% accurate is usually unrealistic as it is likely to be too pricey to produce on time. The degree ofaccuracy depends upon the circumstances. At operational levels information whitethorn need to be accurate to the near penny on a supermarket till receipt, for example. At tactical level department heads whitethorn see weekly summaries correct to the nearest 100, whereas at strategic level directors may look at comparing stores performances over several months to the nearest 100,000 per month.Accuracy is important. As an example, if government statistics based on the last nosecount wrongly show an increase in births within an area, plans may be made to build schools and construction companies may invest in brisk housing developments. In these cases any investment may non be recouped.Reliability or objectivityReliability deals with the truth of information or the objectivity with which it is presented. You can only really use information confidently if you are sure of its reliability and objectivity. When researching for an essay in any subject, we top executive make straight for the library to find a suitable book. We are reasonably confident that the information found in a book, especially one that the library has purchased, is reliable and (in the case of factual information) objective.The book has been write and the authors name is usually printed for all to see. The publisher should have employed an editor and an expert in the field to edit the book and question any factual doubts they may have. In short, much time and energy goes into publishing a book and for that reason we can be reasonably confident that the information is reliable and objective. Compare that to finding information on the Internet where anybody can write unedited and unverified veridical and publish it on the web.Unless you know who the author is, or a well-thought-of university or government agency backs up the research, then you cannot be sure that the information is reliable. Some Internet websites are like vanity publishing, where anyone can write a book and pay certain (vanity) publishers to publish it. relevance/appropriatenessInformation should be relevant to the purpose for which it is involve. It must be suitable. What is relevant for one manager may not be relevant for another. The user will become frustrated if information contains data orthogonal to the task in hand. For example, a market research company may give information on users perceptions of the quality of a product.This is not relevant for the manager who wants to know opinions on relative prices of the product and its rivals. The information gained would not be relevant to the purpose.CompletenessInformation should contain all the details required by the user. Otherwise, it may not be useful as the hind end for making a decision. For example, if an organization is supplied with information regarding the costs of supplying a fleet of cars for the sales force, and servicing and maintenance costs are not included, then a costing based on the information supplied will be considerably underestimated. Ideally all the information needed for a particular decision should be available. However, this rarely happens good information is very much incomplete. To meet all the needs of the situation, you often have to collect it from a variety of sources. Level of detail/ compendiousnessInformation should be in a form that is short enough to allow for its examination and use. in that location should be no impertinent information. For example, it is very common practice to repeat financial data and present this information, both in the form of figures and by using a chart or graph. We would say that the graph is more concise than the tables of figures as there is little or no extraneous information in the graph or chart. Clearly there is a trade-off between level of detail and conciseness.Prese ntationThe presentation of information is important to the user. Information can be more easily assimilated if it is aesthetically pleasing. For example, a marketing report that includes graphs of statistics will be more concise as well as more aesthetically pleasing to the users within the organization. Many organizations use presentation software and show summary information via a data projector. These presentations have usually been well thought out to be visually attractive and to convey the correct amount of detail. measureInformation must be on time for the purpose for which it is required. Information received too late will be irrelevant. For example, if you receive a brochure from a theatre and notice there was a plan by your favorite band yesterday, then the information is too late to be of use.Value of informationThe relative importance of information for decision-making can increase or decrease its value to an organization. For example, an organization requires informat ion on a competitors performance that is critical to their own decision on whether to invest in new machinery for their factory. The value of this information would be extravagantly. Always keep in mind that information should be available on time, within cost constraints and be legally obtained.Cost of informationInformation should be available within set cost levels that may vary dependent on situation. If costs are too high to obtain information an organization may go under to seek passably less comprehensive information elsewhere. For example, an organization wants to commission a market survey on a new product. The survey could cost more than the forecast initial profit from the product. In that situation, the organization would probably decide that a less costly source of information should be used, unconstipated if it may give inferior information.