Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Foundations of Reading Assessment and Intervention Research Paper Term

Foundations of Reading Assessment and Intervention Research - Term Paper Example The key purpose of informal assessments is to match the reader to text. This purpose characterizes the second criterion of the 2010 edition of the International Reading Association Standards for Reading Professional (Gambrell, Morrow, & Pressley, 2007). A broad array of literary works ranging from conventional print, computerized, to online sources define this criterion. Informal assessments seek to make students have the essential reading, writing, and intellectual skills for complicated books. Secondly, informal assessments present an opportunity for teachers to offer responses to their class individually (Reutzel & Cooter, 2011). This opportunity comes about by acquiring information on students’ learning progress. A third purpose of informal assessment is to drive guidelines by removing guesswork and enabling teachers to target precise shortages instead of teaching a whole lesson or unit once again. The perception of print. Teachers sit with students individually, request them to read a print text, and later answer questions about it (DeVries, 2011). The posed questions should follow formats recommended by the informal assessment model or reading criteria. The purpose of formal assessments is to determine the volume of knowledge students have grasped from previous lessons (DeVries, 2011). Formal assessments can present a method of comparing one student to the rest of the class. Teachers can expand this method to comparing their student individually outside the class. The difference between norm-referenced and criterion-referenced assessments is that norm-referenced assessments aim to weigh the amount of knowledge retained by a test subject while criterion-referenced assessments determines the knowledge a test subject knew prior to and after completing a task (Reutzel & Cooter, 2011). One should interpret data reports by comparing the data acquired with the question design and not try to change the data to fit the question

Monday, October 28, 2019

Spearman VS. Gardner Essay Example for Free

Spearman VS. Gardner Essay Charles Spearman (1904) defined and developed a unilinear testing approach to general intelligence (g), which is based on a positive correlation among varying subjects like math, earth sciences and vocabulary. Gardner (1983) proposed there were multiple intelligences (MI), or seven areas of intelligence, linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal, and that each person has more than one of these skills. While testing of g intelligence is still used to assess overall IQ, universities and corporations look at the wider consideration offered by Gardner. Spearmans theory creates an environment that places strong emphasis on getting a high IQ score and high scores on a number of placement tests useful for schooling. However, as Gardner has said, these place too high an emphasis on IQ and test scores, and in ignores certain intelligences and abilities that people can bring to the workforce. Relying solely on IQ test scores not only can exclude an individual with superior a talent (g) from getting a proper education in the area of expertise, but can eliminate the individual from the education and professional arena altogether. We are all endowed with multiple, genetically determined forms of intelligence that can be enhanced through practice and learning, yet this is ignored in the process of rewarding individuals for high IQ according to Spearman. Unfortunately, MI theory is only just being put into practice at the educational level. Wallace Shilkus, a middle school technology education teacher in Illinois, wanted to know how relevant technology education was to middle school students; whether his methods of instruction made a difference in the classroom; and whether Gardners multiple intelligences had a role to play in the classroom. (Merrill, 2004, 6). Shilkus tied the in-class study to action research to document his teaching methods and benefits to his students in 2001, and found (using CO2 cars as the activity) that his students demonstrated most of the intelligences. Throughout this process, Shilkus noticed differences in himself as the teacher and his students as the learners. Moreover, Shilkus discovered that by presenting the material and requirements of the CO2 car activity in different forms, the students excelled. (Merrill, 2004, 6). Spearmans theory still reigns, as Gardners theories are just being put into practice, making one wonder what would happen to IQ testing and educational systems if, based on Shilkuss success, Gardners MI were put into practice on a scale approaching that of Spearman. Apparently, Gardners theory that students are being held back is supported and if his theory were put into practice, all students could excel and increase their chances for success in the workplace. I believe that Gardners Multiple Intelligence in more inline with society today. Knowledge cannot be put into just two types and tested that way. There are many different types of knowledge and if you included more of them into tests and stopped timing people on tests there would be a clearer understanding of why there are so many people failing the tests. You would know exactly what is wrong and could teach them more in-depth on that subject. Common sense is also a type of intelligence that needs to be tested if testing for the perfect IQ. A person could be a genius when it comes to academics, but have no understanding of common sense. You would have to be a genius in both to truly be a genius. IQ tests are not very accurate and do not go in depth enough on subjects. There may not even be a way to fully test to see if someone is a true genius. It would be a challenge to come up with a test to see if someone is an all around genius. References: Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books. Merrill, C. (May 2004). Action research and technology education. The Technology Teacher, 63, 8, 6. Shepard, R; Fasko, D, Jr; Osborne, FH. (2004). Intrapersonal intelligence: affective factors in thinking. Education. Available:

Saturday, October 26, 2019

American Flag Desecration is Treasonous! Essay -- Argumentative Persua

American Flag Desecration is Treasonous! The flag it is the symbol of our nation, the symbol of our freedom, the symbol of those that have gone before us to defend our liberties, and most importantly the symbol which at one point or another each person has pledged their allegiance to. Desecrating this symbol which all should hold dear is to desecrate America’s values and betray the devotion which all have pledged to our nation. Knowing the importance of our high flying flag makes it treasonous to burn or desecrate it, thereby making it obvious that this act should be forbidden by the constitution of the United States of America. Firstly, nothing in the constitution protects the act of desecrating a flag. Many argue that our first amendment allows us the right to this expressive behavior, however when I read our first amendment which states: â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech†¦.† Nothing in our first amendment protects nor allows any type of action. Our amendment protec...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

A. K. Kraipak Case

| ASSIGNMENT ON| A. K KRAIPAK vs UNION OF INDIA| (A Case Study)| | | | AN ANALYSIS OF THE CASE OF A. K KRAIPAK VS UNION OF INDIA : INTRODUCTION: Kraipak vs Union of india is regarded as an epoch making decision as it demolishes the artificial and conceptualistic distinction between administrative and quasi judicial function as well as delinked natural justice from quasi judicial.In this case the court asserted that natural justice could be applied to the so called administrative function as well, for the rules of natural justice aim at securing justice, or to prevent miscarriage of justice, and the basic aim is to arrived at a just decision. kraipak’s case had a profound impact on the growth of administrative law in india. The liberal judicial trend in favour of applying natural justice got strengthened as a result of the kraipak’s decision. Facts of the case :In 1966, a service called The Indian Forest Service was constituted, the selection for which was to be made fro m among the officers serving in the forest department of the state. Section 3 of the All India Services Act, 1951 provides that the Central Government shall after consulting the Government of the States concerned to make rules for the regulation of recruitment and the conditions of the service of persons appointed to those All India Services. In pursuance of the power given under Section 3, Indian Forest Service (Recruitment) Rules, 1966 were made.The Rule 4(1) of the above mentioned Rules empowers the Central Government to recruit to the service any person from amongst the members of the State Forest Service adjudged suitable in accordance with such regulations as the Central Government may make in consultation with State Governments and the Commission. † Now the regulation 3 of Indian Forest Service (Initial Recruitment) Regulations, 1956 framed under Rule 4(1) of the Indian Forest Service (Recruitment) Rules, 1966 provided for the Constitution of a Special Selection Board c onsisting of: 1.The Chairman of UPSC or his nominee. 2. Inspector General of Forests of the Government of India. 3. Joint Secretary. UOI. 4. Chief Secretary of the concerned State Government. 5. Chief Conservator of Forest of the concerned State Government. The selection Board was to be headed by the Chief Conservator of the Forest of the State while the final selections were to be made by the Union Public Service Commission (U. P. S. C).In the State of Jammu and Kashmir, a Naquishbund was appointed as the acting Chief Conservator of forest and was olso a member of the selection board for recommending the names of officers for All India Forest Service was formed, The Board recommended the names of the persons including Naquishbund. The selections as finally made by the board were accepted by the Commission. On the basis of the recommendations of the Commission, the impugned list was published. Even After review Basu, Baig and Kaulwho were supersede by naquishbund for chief conservat or of forest were not selected.It must be noted that Naquishbund was also one of the candidates for All India Forest Service. Though he did not sit in the selection board at the time his name was considered for selection but he did sit in the board when the names of Basu, Baig and Kaul were considered for selection and was also involved while preparing the list of selected candidates . Aggrieved, The Gazetted Officers Association, brought a petition to the Court challenging that the selections in question were made in contravention of the Principles of Natural Justice.Arguments Advanced : The petitioners as well as the respondents raised arguments with respect to the nature of the power conferred on the selection board. The petitioners contended that Rule 4 as well as Regulation 5 prescribes that the selections should be made after ‘adjudging’ the suitability of the officers belonging to the State service. The word ‘adjudge’ the meaning of which is ‘t o judge or decide’ indicates that the power conferred on the selection board was a quasi-judicial power.It was contended on their behalf that such a power is a judicial power not an administrative one and it has to be exercised in accordance with the well accepted Rules of Natural Justice, the violation of which has been rightly claimed. Naquishbund, being a candidate for Indian Forest Service cannot be an adjudicator of the same. On the other hand, the learned Attorney General on behalf of the respondents argued that the power exercised by the selection board is not a quasi-judicial power but an administrative power.To support this contention, it was further admitted that the proceedings before the selection board were not quasi-judicial because the board was not required to decide about any ‘right’. The duty of the board was merely to select officers who in its opinion were suitable for Indian Forest Service. He interpreted the word ‘adjudge’ as be ing ‘found worthy of selection’. It was also contended by the learned Attorney General that after all the selection board was only a recommendatory body. Its recommendations had first to be perused by the Home Ministry and then by the U.P. S. C. The final recommendations were made by the U. P. S. C. Therefore, grievances of the petitioners have no real basis. Keeping in mind the validity of the administrative actions taken, all that has to be seen is whether the final decision is just or not. And finally, in the form of arguendo, it was also contended by the learned Attorney General that the mere fact that one of the members of the board was biased against some of the petitioners cannot vitiate the whole selection process Analyzing the JudgmentA five judge bench of the Apex Court held that the selections made by the selection committee were in violation of principles of natural justice. The Court found the power exercised by the Selection Board as an administrative one and tested the validity of the selections on that basis. It held that the concept of rule of law would lose its importance if the instrumentalities of the State are not charged with the duty of discharging their functions in a fair and just manner. Also, it is a must to charge dministrative authorities with the duty of discharging their functions in a fair and just manner in a Welfare State like India, where the jurisdiction of the administrative bodies is increasing at a rapid rate. In the words of Hegde, J. – â€Å"The requirement of acting judicially in essence is nothing but to act justly and fairly and not arbitrarily or capriciously. The procedures which are considered inherent in the exercise of a judicial power are merely those which facilitate if not ensure a just and fair decision. It further observed that the dividing line between an administrative power and quasi-judicial power is being gradually obliterated. The Court held that the basic principle of nemo judex in causa sua was violated by appointing Naquishbund as a member of the selection board. Though he did not participate in the deliberations of the board when his name was being considered yet the very fact that he was a member of the selection board had a significant impact on the decision of the selection board and he participated in the deliberations when the claims Basu, Baig and Kaul were considered.Under such circumstances, the Court could not believe that Naquishbund could have been unbiased, the Court observed that the question is not whether Naquishbund was actually biased or not. The real question is whether there is a reasonable ground for believing that he was likely to have been biased. Further the Court observed that the question is not whether Naquishbund was actually biased or not. The real question is whether there is a reasonable ground for believing that he was likely to have been biased, earlier in Manaklal’s case the Court had made it clear that the test wa s not actual bias but a reasonable apprehension of bias.It held that it is difficult to prove the state of mind. Therefore in deciding the question of bias ordinary course of human conduct is taken into consideration. Owing to this, the Court observed that there was a personal interest on part of Naquishbund to keep out his rivals in order to secure his position without further challenge and so he cannot said to be impartial, fair and just while making the selection. ConclusionTherefore what emerges from this case is that although the Courts are making distinctions between the Quasi-Judicial and Administrative powers but at the same time there is one common element of fair procedure in both the cases which can be referred to as the ‘duty to act fairly’. This duty arises from the same general principles, as do the rules of natural justice. The case of A. K Kraipak v. Union of India is a landmark judgement in the development of administrative law in India and has strength ened the rule of law in this country.Hedge, J. observed that â€Å"If the purpose of the rules of natural justice is to prevent miscarriage of justice one fails to see why those rules should be made inapplicable to administrative inquiries†. In the words of Krishna Iyer, J. – â€Å"Once we understand the soul of the rule as fairplay in action – and it is so- we must hold that it extends to both the fields. After all administrative power in a democratic set-up is not allergic to fairness in action and discretionary executive justice cannot degenerate into unilateral injustice. †

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Reflection about

Wars seemed like things that only happened in the past or in movies, but now we grew up seeing the news, the deadlines, and the stories of the horrific events that have been happening since 2001 and now we see them as normal issues in our world, our perspective about the wars, social and political tragedies are way too normal now.This film made me think about how twisted the mind of some people is, how they can agree to destroy the life of many innocent people, either way for the AH-Qaeda group and for the â€Å"supposedly† attack of the Americans to the Muslim people that Osama Bin Laden once claimed. It also got me thinking hat the security of the airports back in those days were highly poor, maybe they trusted more or they didn't even wonder that someone would dare to hijacked a flight, but of course it changed after all this tragedies, now you can't even travel with liquids that are more than 3 oz. ND obviously you can't travel with knives anymore. This film made me feel s o disturbed and uncomfortable, seeing what it actually happened in those towers, the Pentagon, how people were running for their lives, how they were struggling to get out and survive the hell that hey lived in, and the death of all the people that were in those planes.It made appreciate that life can be taking away from us in just the matter of 1 second, we should appreciate all the things that we have no matter what and always demonstrate the love that you have towards your family, never skipping a day telling that you love them. What I found most surprising/interesting was that all of this events happened in such a small matter of time, in less than 3 hours bunch of things happened, he two Twin Towers were hit, the Pentagon was hit also by an airplane, and that the passengers took over the plane that was going to hit the White House.Also I found out to be really interesting that the people that were in the United Airlines Flight 93 were brave enough to go and risk their lives jus t so they could save the life Of others, those people are the kind who should be called heroes. What I found most shocking or disturbing is that the fact of people who were in the Twin Towers got so desperate and they decided to kill themselves by mumping out of the building because they gave up, they couldn't stand all the suffer and the agony of being trapped in a 80 floor building and be completely helpless.Also, I got so disturbed in just thinking of hearing some outdoor soft music that was coming from the speakers while people were dying in the inside of those 2 buildings. The music felt and sounded so demoniac, like if it were a horror film. It is important for people to know about 9/11 because it was an event that left a mark in the world that we live in, it changed so many lives and the lifestyle f most human being in the Earth.It got some consequences that can explain why the present is like it is, the consequence of the problems that 9/11 caused, and because it's a tragic event that happened in our lifetime and we saw everything that was happening. Also, we should be informed in all the important and basic events that the humanity has lived and not repeating them again, these are mistaken decisions that people have made and We need to learn from them to not committing them again.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

How to Give a Great Group Presentation

How to Give a Great Group Presentation No matter how much you plan (or hope) otherwise, its nearly impossible to make it through your college career without having to do some kind of group presentation. Whether its for an introductory course or your senior seminar, group presentations are part of everyones college experience. And nearly everyone has had a bad experience working and presenting as a group. So just what you can do to make sure that your required group presentation is one to remember in a good way, of course? Step One: Make Sure Everyone Carries Their Own Weight Easier said than done, though, right? This step is the most critical but also the most challenging. From the beginning, however, it can be helpful to outline what everyone will do from start to finish. That way, if someone starts to slack off, its clear whats happening and you can discuss it with the group member, discuss it with the rest of the group or, if necessary, discuss it with the professor. Unfortunately, too, even if people try to pick up someone elses slack in a group, that discrepancy inevitably becomes apparent during a group presentation. And the last thing you want is someones laziness sabotaging your entire groups work, from start to finish. Step Two: Schedule Deadlines and Rehearsals in Advance As a college student, it can be incredibly difficult to manage your time. And no matter how hard you might try, things inevitably end up happening that prevent you from planning well in advance. However, since you know the unexpected always threatens to happen, plan as much as possible as early as possible. At your first group meeting, set a timeline for when things will be done. Schedule group meetings, deadlines, and rehearsals well in advance. In essence: dont plan to cram by scheduling an all-night stress fest the night before. Even if everything goes smoothly during your work session, everyone will be exhausted the next day. And tired group members are much more like to make errors and otherwise self-sabotage the group presentation everyone worked so hard to put together. Step Three: Present Together and Cohesively If youve been assigned to deliver a group presentation, make sure youre having different people present one main presentation, not having different people present different presentation. (And no, having everyone split going through the Power Point slides doesnt count as cohesive.) How can your groups material best be delivered? What presentation strengths do your group members have? What goals must you meet during your presentation? Whats the best way for everyone to come together to make sure those goals are met? Step Four: Have back-up (like an understudy) for each part of the presentation. If youre putting in the effort to have a great group presentation, dont let fate get in the way of all of your efforts. Even if youre dividing up your presentation, make sure at least one other person can serve as a backup presenter for every part of your delivery. Even if everyone is carrying their own weight, you never know who is going to get unexpectedly sick or face a family emergency. If you, as a group, can all sub in for each other, youll not only work to prevent unexpected disaster when it comes to your grade, but youll reinforce your own mastery of the material (and its delivery). Step Five: Do at Least One Rehearsal You may think you can just briefly mention what youre going to cover in the presentation and then be good to go. And while this can be helpful, you might surprise yourself by realizing what you can learn by doing an actual run-through. Even if you think youre being clear, your fellow group members can provide positive, constructive feedback about where and how you can improve. And while that may seem temporarily uncomfortable, its a lot easier to deal with than the permanence of a bad grade. (Side note: When doing your rehearsal, talk about what each person will be wearing. You dont want some members showing up in formal clothes while others show up in shorts and flip-flops.) Step Six: Remember that Everyone is Presenting the Entire Time The main aspect of a group presentation is that the group is presenting the entire time. This means that, even if your part is over, you dont get to just sit back, secretly check your phone, and stop paying attention. Everyone in your group needs to remain attentive, alert and engaged during the entire delivery. In addition to making your overall presentation look better (your professor, after all, will inevitably notice if your entire group stops paying attention by the time the last presenter is up), youll be better equipped to step in if someone is struggling or to answer questions if and when they arise. Step Seven: Celebrate Afterward! Group presentations are such a pain because, well, theyre such a pain. They take a lot of hard work, effort, coordination, and teamwork. Consequently, celebrating afterward is most definitely in order. Rewarding yourself as a team can be a great way to make sure your group presentation experience is one to remember in the positive way youd hoped.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Writing Skills Training 10 Free Online Courses

Writing Skills Training 10 Free Online Courses Writing Skills Training: 10 Free Online Courses Get essential knowledge and master surfing through a variety of informational texts, writing styles and brilliant ideas! Start writing where you are! OpenLearning Want to move from writing simple passages to detailed writing? Participate in the training program suggested by Simon Williams and learn more via OpenLearning! This course is called Scribble: Writing for New Writers. It is highly effective! Get essential knowledge from a true expert! Use practical tips and develop fast, effective research skills! Discover useful tips – they surely will help you to make your online communication more efficient! This training course will show you ways to make your writing powerful and clever. Duke University In case you are interested in the methods of direct interaction with readers, Duke University together with Denise Comer offers a marvelous opportunity to effectively and effortlessly learn English Composition. Learn to meet the readers expectations by exploring a topic in detail, providing a visual analysis or a case study. The course will show you how to provide effective arguments and to create powerful prose, as well as how to ask thought-provoking questions and lead animated discussions. Mt. San Jacinto College The course Crafting an Effective Writer: Tools of the Trade (Fundamental English Writing) developed by Lawrence Barkley and Ted Blake from Mt. San Jacinto College will offer deep insight into sentence building by means of complex phrases and correct punctuation. Moreover, you will learn how to arrange sentences into well-organized passages. Michigan University Thinking Like a Writer is another training course guided by Jeff Grabill and Julie Lindquis from Michigan University. Follow the guidelines presented in the course and learn to utilize effective strategies for learning, reading and writing. Practicing narration and summary will also be beneficial for your writing skills, as well. University of California, Berkley The next option contains plenty of tips for essay writing. Maggie Sokolik, University of California, Berkley, designed a training course that consists of two parts – How to Write an Essay and English Grammar and Essay Writing. Writing involving paragraphs, developing introductions and formulating conclusions require grammatical accuracy and good self-editing skills. Consider an optional course book and be able to compose an essay after taking this part of the course. Its easy to compose great essays! The second part of the course is called English Grammar and Essay Writing. It will give you a nice opportunity to broaden your writing experience. Your English language skills will increase very quickly. Cardiff University Theres also nice possibilities for students who take an interest in journalistic writing. Community Journalism: Digital and Social Media is a training course designed by Richard Shambrook, Cardiff University. The number of websites is growing day by day; you can easily get access to a wide audience! Create a community site and use the benefits of publishing online! Share experiences with site launchers from the Center of Community Journalism and learn more about identifying your target audience, creating flashy content, media, law ethics, and managing your own online community. University of California As an active member of the human race, you may have a strong desire to influence social changes. Join Daniel Heimpel from University of California and take the course J4SC101x: Journalism for Social Change. Master solution-based journalism. The key issues covered in that course are: child protection, poverty, communities and foster care. University of Iowa Writing fiction is also a field that attracts a wide audience. Christopher Merrill from the University of Iowa offers a great training course How Writers Write Fiction! Get acquainted with it and consider creative writing as an international study! Feel a part of the international writing community! The agenda for this online course suggests you will be able to take part in live discussions, get assignments and learn to post your works on websites. Commonwealth Education Trust The training course Writing for Young Reader: Opening the Treasure Chest with Maria Gill and David Hill from Commonwealth Education Trust may seem highly involving for those students who are willing to write stories for children. Find out more about working out the plot, creating the setting, and describing the characters. Entice young learners to follow your every word! University of Sheffield Need applied writing skills for your career? Get the answer to your request from University of Sheffield! A group of well-trained experts – Pamela Hafekost, Hilary Jones, Alison Clay, Marcus Zientek, Steve McCarthy – are ready to share their knowledge and practical experience with you. Participate in a three-week course How to Succeed at: Writing Applications. The skills you get there will help you to write a successful profile, CV, or application. The basic rules of applied writing will support you in learning how to make a brilliant writing presentation of your knowledge, skills and intentions! Its easy to make your writing skills sharper! Become a part of the custom writing community and brighten the world with sparkling ideas!

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Basic Tenets of Animal Rights

Basic Tenets of Animal Rights Animal rights refers to the belief that animals have an intrinsic value separate from any value they have to humans  and are worthy of moral consideration. They have a right to be free from oppression, confinement, use and abuse by humans. The idea of animal rights may be difficult for some people to fully accept. This is because, throughout the world, animals are abused and killed for a wide variety of socially acceptable purposes, though what is socially acceptable is, of course, culturally relative. For example, while eating dogs may be morally offensive to some, many would react similarly to the practice of eating cows.   At the heart of the animal rights movement are two basic principles: the rejection of speciesism, and the knowledge that animals are sentient beings. Speciesism Speciesism is the disparate treatment of individual beings, based solely on their species. It is frequently compared to racism or sexism. Whats Wrong With Speciesism? Animal rights is based on the belief that treating a non-human animal differently just because the animal belongs to a different species is arbitrary and morally wrong. Of course, there are differences between human and non-human animals, but the animal rights community believes that those differences are not morally relevant. For example, many believe that humans have some cognitive abilities that are different from or higher than other animals, but, for the animal rights community, cognitive ability is not morally relevant. If it were, the smartest humans would have more moral and legal rights than other humans who were deemed intellectually inferior. Even if this difference were morally relevant, this trait does not apply to all humans. A person who is profoundly mentally retarded does not have the reasoning capabilities of an adult dog, so cognitive ability cannot be used to defend speciesism. Arent Humans Unique? The traits that were once believed to be unique to humans have now been observed in non-human animals. Until other primates were observed making and using tools, it was believed that only humans could do so. It was also once believed that only humans could use language, but we now see that other species communicate verbally in their own languages and even use human-taught languages. In addition, we  now know that animals have self-awareness, as demonstrated by the animal mirror test. However, even if these or other traits were unique to humans, they are not considered morally relevant by the animal rights community. If we cannot use species to decide which beings or objects in our universe deserve our moral consideration, what trait can we use? For many animal rights activists, that trait is sentience. Sentience Sentience is the ability to suffer. As philosopher Jeremy Bentham wrote, â€Å"the question is not, Can they reason? nor, Can they talk? but, Can they suffer?† Because a dog is capable of suffering, a dog is worthy of our moral consideration. A table, on the other hand, is incapable of suffering, and is therefore not worthy of our moral consideration. Although harming the table may be morally objectionable if it compromises the economic, esthetic or utilitarian value of the table to the person who owns or uses it, we have no moral duty to the table itself. Why is Sentience Important? Most people recognize that we should not engage in activities that cause pain and suffering to other people. Inherent in that recognition is the knowledge that other people are capable of pain and suffering. If an activity causes undue suffering to someone, the activity is morally unacceptable. If we accept that animals are capable of suffering, it is therefore morally unacceptable to cause them undue suffering. To treat animal suffering differently from human suffering would be speciesist. What is Undue Suffering? When is suffering justified? Many animal activists would argue that since humans are capable of living without animal-based foods, living without animal entertainment and living without cosmetics tested on animals, these forms of animal suffering have no moral justification. What about medical research? Non-animal medical research is available, although there is quite a bit of debate over the scientific value of animal research versus non-animal research. Some argue that results from animal experimentation are not applicable to humans, and we should conduct research on human cell and tissue cultures, as well as human subjects who provide voluntary and informed consent. Others argue that a cell or tissue culture cannot simulate a whole animal, and animals are the best available scientific models. All would probably agree that there are certain experiments that cannot be done on humans, regardless of informed consent. From a pure animal rights standpoint, animals should not be treated differently from humans. Since involuntary human experimentation is universally condemned regardless of its scientific value and animals are incapable of giving voluntary consent to an experiment, animal experimentation should also be condemned. Maybe Animals Dont Suffer? Some might argue that animals do not suffer. A 17th century philosopher, Rene Descartes, argued that animals operated like clocks- intricate machines that have instincts, but do not suffer or feel pain. Most people who have lived with a companion animal would probably disagree with Descartes’ assertion, having observed the animal first-hand and watched how the animal reacts to hunger, pain, and fear. Animal trainers are also aware that beating an animal will often produce the desired results, because the animal quickly learns what needs to be done in order to avoid suffering. Isnt the Use of Animals Justified? Some may believe that animals suffer, but argue that animal suffering is justified in certain instances. For example, they may argue that slaughtering a cow is justified because that slaughter serves a purpose and the cow will be eaten. However, unless that same argument applies equally to the slaughter and consumption of humans, the argument is based in speciesism.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Proteins Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Proteins - Essay Example Enzymes can be defined as catalysts that cause a chemical reaction to process at a quicker pace. For instance, oxygen is a catalyst for fire. Enzymes are the catalysts of biological and chemical processes that are related to a variety of natural processes occurring in human beings. This includes a wide range including the formation, decomposition and rearranging of molecules to provide the individual with the energy and essential substances needed to live and function. Without enzymes however, these processes would occur far too slowly for proper metabolism. Enzymes are composed of amino acids. This combination of amino acids is usually referred to as a protein. Many refer to enzymes as special proteins that are biologically active or contain energy. It is because of this energy releasing element that enzymes are able to perform its work. Nevertheless, enzymes cannot be classified alongside other proteins. Once the enzyme no longer possesses energy, it will fail in its function as a catalyst and is now equal to any other general protein in the body. Enzymes are classified under several key groups. These include Proteases that help breakdown proteins, Lipases that help decompose lipids and fats, Amylases that help break down carbohydrates and finally Cellulases that break down the vegetative matter called cellulose. Further enzymes can also be classified as digestive enzymes, food enzymes, metabolism enzymes, etc. Food enzymes are introduced to the body via the oral intake of foods. However, food in this crude form manifests only necessary enzymes to digest that particular food item, which is usually not sufficient for storing in the body for use at a later time. It should be added that the process of cooking and processing (as done in mass produced foods) depletes the food of all its enzyme content. In this context, enzyme therapy comes as a boon for all those aspiring to prolong their natural lives. By understanding the core

Exploration of regional variations in guanxi among Chinese managers Thesis

Exploration of regional variations in guanxi among Chinese managers - Thesis Example Guanxi networks are of great importance in business and financial transactions, and hence the relevance of guanxi to management and understanding of business in China is extreme. According to Ramasamy and Goh (2006, p.130) â€Å"guanxi is the lifeblood of Chinese business communities, and frequently acts as a lubricant of business activities†. Guanxi is also considered as being â€Å"a channel of knowledge transfer† and two specific aspects of guanxi are related with such a channel - â€Å"trust and communication† (Ramasamy and Goh, 2006, p.130). Guanxi has also been related to the human resources management of firms that operate across China. Law and Jones (2009, p.313) revealed that various aspects of guanxi need to be clearly understood by HR managers in both Chinese and foreign firms. Guanxi has been related to other parts of business activity in China. In a study by Lee and Humphreys (2007), guanxi was found to be a critical factor affecting a firm’s supply chain management: in aspects of strategic purchasing, outsourcing, and supplier development (Lee and Humphreys, 2007, p.45). Though guanxi influences the development of various business activities in China, a differentiation has been identified â€Å"in the way guanxi is utilised in state-owned and foreign-invested enterprises† (Wood, Whiteley and Zhang, 2002, p.263). The study by Wood et al. (2002) found that guanxi is considered to be an important criterion but it seems to be more appreciated in state-owned enterprises rather than enterprises based on foreign capital. The above view is in accordance with that of Liu and Roos (2006, p.432) who noted that â€Å"the guanxi-driven paradigm remains a crucial factor in planning and managing effective working relationships when the Chinese partner i s one officially classified as â€Å"restricted†. In other words, guanxi influences the business activities in China – affecting also the decisions of Chinese managers – but this influence seems to be

Friday, October 18, 2019

Will climate change destroy New York City How can it be managed ( Essay

Will climate change destroy New York City How can it be managed ( weather science) - Essay Example As noted by Russs, Sandy resulted in damages amounting to about $20 billion with 43 people confirmed dead and many more injured by the storm. The transport facilities in the city, including highways, subways, railways and airports, were shut down. The city was thrown into darkness as critical infrastructure, including wastewater treatment plants, hospitals and infrastructure, were incapacitated. Communication systems were also cut following the effects of the storm. Reports on Hurricane Sandy pointed out the increase in the intensity and frequency of hurricanes observed in the North Atlantic from the 1980s. The devastation caused by Sandy had been worsened by changing climatic factors. Partly to blame according to the New York City Panel on Climate Change, NPCC (4) was the rise in the sea level in the region around New York City which increased the magnitude and extent of coastal flooding during Hurricane Sandy. Therefore, New York City remains exposed to destructive effects of clima te change. Borrowing from the Special Initiative for Rebuilding and Resiliency, SIRR, report authored after the exposure of the vulnerability of New York City by Sandy, there exist genuine threats to the city. Among the notable threats, heat waves, intense precipitation and coastal flooding have been noted to be the most extreme (NPCC 12). Heading towards 2050s, heat waves could increase in frequency, duration and intensity. New York has for a long time been experiencing an average of 18 days per year with temperatures of 32oC or 90oF and above. The SIRR report observes that by 2010, New York could experience between 26 and 31 such days. This could rise to up to 57 days a year by the year 2050. With this change would be an additional average of 110 to 260 deaths per year related to heat waves. The number of days when rainfall exceeds 2 inches or 5 centimeters could increase from the current average of 2 days per year to five by 2020. Coastal flooding has been projected to

The way to USA Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The way to USA - Essay Example I spent the week before I flew to USA walking in the house at night, driving around my hometown. I was strong and tough, so I did not cry at all, or perhaps I was only pretending to be strong. Here is an account of my experience on arriving to USA. It all started when I was expelled from my university, since I could not pass the math class twice. However, that was not because I was stupid. I had thought that the university would be like the high school, so, I did not work hard enough to pass the course. I was upset at that time. I felt lost. So, I started to ask myself what to do, and where to go. Since I could not find a job without a degree, so, I was hopeless, and I did not know what to do. I told my father, who was disappointed, but told me that I had not yet lost everything, and that I still had chances because I was not getting old for studying. He advised me to look up for a new university. I consulted people regarding this. One of my best friends told me that his cousin was studying at USA, and was happy enough about his choice so far. This was where I got the idea from. I talked to his cousin about this. Since I was a child, I was fantasizing about going to USA. I was dreaming about American culture, since I loved the ir way of living. So, that became my inspiration. I was afraid that my parents would stand against my decision, but I was wrong. My father told me, with a big smile and happy face, that he liked my talking like a grown up man. My mother was a bit worried about my staying in USA all alone. When she conveyed her feelings, her voice was trembling and her eyes started shedding tears, but she was pretended that she was looking down at her cell phone. I was not able to sleep after that. I was thinking a lot about how I could go by myself and adjust as I could not speak English. But, I was telling myself that everything would be all right. I put all my things together, which included my clothes, books, courage,

Thursday, October 17, 2019

The Technology of Gender Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Technology of Gender - Assignment Example Over the passage of time, with greater representation of women in the workforce, gender has become confined to family matters and insensitivity toward gender is found in the social framework. The technology of gender is the term used to refer to those sets of cultural practices which play a role in making a body gendered. This course’s theoretical basis is the conceptualization and articulation of the human body within particular discourses of culture that include but are not limited to religion, law, medicine, and economy. These discourses are based on the deepest cultural ideologies and belief systems and jointly form a framework that dictates particular ways in which men and women should think, behave, and interact with one another and with the environment. Four propositions made in the article when mentioned chronologically in decreasing order of self-evidence include; gender is a representation, this representation is the construction of gender, the process of gender cons truction is as effective today as it was in the past, and the deconstruction of gender affects its construction. In this article, the author has complimented upon the perception of ideology as being without outside. The author suggests that there does exist an outside to ideology, â€Å"a place from where ideology can be seen for what it is – mystification, imaginary relation, wool over one’s eyes; and that place is†¦scientific knowledge† (de Lauretis). I would like to second the author in this because science does provide an explanation for a phenomenon on the basis of objective reasoning and logic. Characterization of the subject of feminism by the movement as ideological representation in and out of the gender is a back and forth movement between gender representation and what is made unrepresentable by the gender.

Euro Mosaic Segmentation Method Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Euro Mosaic Segmentation Method - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that today’s world market of products is experiencing high competition not only by more competitors but also varieties in consumer’s demands and needs. To ease marketers for fulfilling the demands of customers, different consumers are segmented into different bases. â€Å"Global market segmentation is the process of identifying specific segments, whether they be country groups or individual customer groups, of potential customers with homogeneous attributes who are likely to exhibit similar behavior†. Geodemographic classifications put a step towards consumer segmentation. The more difficult markets to assess are those in which there appears to be a discrepancy between the long- and short-term attractiveness. Euro Mosaic claims to be the first pan-European segmentation system allows the classification of 500 million consumers across the European Union on the basis of the types of the neighborhood in which they live. It focuses on many dimensions for segmentation of a product like Elite suburbs, average areas, luxury flats, low-income inner-city, high-rise social housing, industrial communities, dynamic families, low-income families, rural agricultural and vacation retirement. In European Geodemographics Conference 1st April 2009, Andy Bell of Eurodirect told about the changing political, economic and cultural faces of Europe and the opportunities these are bringing for global businesses.... Companies can now access a variety of public datasets (censuses and social surveys for example) as well as market research and list broking resources, many of which are moving east into the wider Europe. Countries in Europe have widely differing per capita incomes and in creating a European segmentation it is important to capture both absolute and relative differences between areas – to avoid, for example, all areas of the poorest countries being classified into the poorest segment. Also, pictorial representations of segments, whilst popular in national systems, can be confusing or misleading if applied on a pan-European basis. (Peter Furness, 2009) Euro Mosaic Segmentation is frequently used in many countries for different product fields. A well-established system which overcomes most of the difficulties and encompasses both geodemographic and behavioral lifestyle factors is the CCN ACORN/MOSAIC system. The system was originally pioneered in the UK market and extended in resp onse to an increasing number of requests from multinational clients, looking for a common and consistent European-based consumer targeting system (MOSAIC Today, 1993). Use of MOSAIC segmentation method is very popular in industries. This gives many advantages to the businesses, companies, product fields and world market of goods and services. MOSAIC segmentation method develops the customer profiles and databases on different bases. This provides many uses in retailing and trade business. "A major concern to the retail location analyst is that, given the assertive marketing of such companies, it is more difficult to evaluate critically the bases and appropriateness of the packages offered."

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

The Technology of Gender Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Technology of Gender - Assignment Example Over the passage of time, with greater representation of women in the workforce, gender has become confined to family matters and insensitivity toward gender is found in the social framework. The technology of gender is the term used to refer to those sets of cultural practices which play a role in making a body gendered. This course’s theoretical basis is the conceptualization and articulation of the human body within particular discourses of culture that include but are not limited to religion, law, medicine, and economy. These discourses are based on the deepest cultural ideologies and belief systems and jointly form a framework that dictates particular ways in which men and women should think, behave, and interact with one another and with the environment. Four propositions made in the article when mentioned chronologically in decreasing order of self-evidence include; gender is a representation, this representation is the construction of gender, the process of gender cons truction is as effective today as it was in the past, and the deconstruction of gender affects its construction. In this article, the author has complimented upon the perception of ideology as being without outside. The author suggests that there does exist an outside to ideology, â€Å"a place from where ideology can be seen for what it is – mystification, imaginary relation, wool over one’s eyes; and that place is†¦scientific knowledge† (de Lauretis). I would like to second the author in this because science does provide an explanation for a phenomenon on the basis of objective reasoning and logic. Characterization of the subject of feminism by the movement as ideological representation in and out of the gender is a back and forth movement between gender representation and what is made unrepresentable by the gender.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Nursing Research Summary and Ethical Considerations Essay

Nursing Research Summary and Ethical Considerations - Essay Example The birth of a child is a very important event in the life of a woman (CY Chan, Wong, Lam, Wong, & Kwok, 2014). The nature of birth a woman undergoes is also important since it also defines her perception of childbirth long after the child was born. Thus, this study was undertaken to establish the perception of postpartum women on what entails the best nursing qualities for nurses attending to pregnant women after birth. The study applied a qualitative research methodology, consisting of analysis of interviews undertaken on 15 postpartum women who had given birth to healthy infants in a  Ã‚   hospital in Hong Kong (CY Chan, Wong, Lam, Wong, & Kwok, 2014). The results of the analysis were extrapolated to give five basic nursing qualities desired by women after giving birth. The experience that a woman gets during and after giving birth can make or break her will to continue siring more children. Thus, if a woman experience during giving birth is positively satisfactory, then the woman is prepared for future siring of children (CY Chan, Wong, Lam, Wong, & Kwok, 2014). However, if a woman gets a negative experience after giving birth, her will to continue siring more children is broken. The significance of this study to nursing is that; childbirth is a very phenomenal event in the life of a woman and giving her a satisfactory experience is very important for the nursing profession. Thus, the study is significant to the nursing profession, since it establishes the qualities that the nurses attending to women during giving birth should have, and prepares the nursing profession for satisfactory attending to pregnant women after giving birth (CY Chan, Wong, Lam, Wong, & Kwok, 2014). The purpose of the study was to establish the best qualities that nurses attending to women during and after giving birth should possess. The objective of the study was to establish the best qualities of obstetric nurses that can lead to satisfactory attending of postpartum women. The phenomenon of this study is that the role of the obstetric nurses is important in defining the satisfactory levels of women during and after giving birth (CY Chan, Wong, Lam, Wong, & Kwok, 2014).     

Monday, October 14, 2019

Dramatic Tension in “The Royal Hunt of the Sun” Essay Example for Free

Dramatic Tension in â€Å"The Royal Hunt of the Sun† Essay How does Shaffer create and use dramatic tension in â€Å"The Royal Hunt of the Sun† and to what effect? The Royal Hunt of the Sun is a gripping play about the journey of the Spanish army sent to conquer Peru, and the unlikely friendships that are formed. Shaffer creates dramatic tension with a number of techniques such as the use of Martin to narrate the story to the audience, a unique and powerful use of sounds, and the use of symbolic props and duologue scenes that create dramatic irony. He also employs a number of methods to show the contrasts and similarities of religion, culture and philosophy between the Inca and Spanish armies. Shaffer initially uses Martin’s narration to foreshadow the ensuing disastrous events. Old Martin generates the audience’s attention at the very start of the play by saying â€Å"This story is about ruin.† This creates dramatic irony and suggests a treacherous and threatening atmosphere. In â€Å"The Mime of the Great Ascent† Old Martin speaks about the tribulation the army faced â€Å"†¦we crept forward like blind men, the sweat freezing on our faces† in order to gain the sympathy of the audience. Old Martin’s emotions are showed in different ways throughout the play, â€Å"Look at the warrior where he struts†¦ salvation in his new spurs. One of the knights at last.† Here Shaffer uses Old Martin’s cynicism and bitterness to exaggerate the loss of Young Martin’s innocence and childhood and gain the empathy of the audience. As the story unfolds, the reason for Old Martin’s pessimism becomes clear to the audience, â€Å"I went out into the night†¦ and dropped my first tears as a man†¦ Devotion never came again.† Here Shaffer uses Old Martin’s reflection on his past as a window through which the audience can see how Martin’s broken youth shaped him as a man, and uses realism to involve then in the action onstage, creating suspense. Shaffer makes use of stage directions, which play a big part in revealing the symbolism of the performance, and creating dramatic tension. The use of â€Å"Tropical bid cries† throughout the play creates a dangerous and threatening atmosphere, and hints at the power Atahuallpa has over Peru and the Spanish army. During the climb of the Spanish Army to reach the city, Shaffer uses  Ã¢â‚¬Å"an eerie, cold music made from the thin whine of huge saws.† This creates an unnerving atmosphere, putting the audience on edge. Symbolic props also play a large part in creating contrasting moods throughout the performance. â€Å"Four black crucifixes, sharpened to resemble swords† are placed on the back wall, criticizing the hypocrisy of the church, and the use of religion as a pretext for killing whilst representing the conflicted and violent theme. During the course of the play, Shaffer uses the imagery of the â€Å"golden sun† which is placed at the back of the stage. â€Å"Diego†¦ drives his halberd into a slot in one of the rays.† This symbolizes the destruction of the Inca empire, and once again sound is used to create tension when â€Å"The sun gives a deep groan, like the sound of a great animal being wounded.† Here the personification of the sun creates sympathy and compassion amongst the audience. Peter Shaffer uses scenes of duologue between the main characters to give the audience an insight into the relationships between them, and create dramatic irony. During the play there are moments where Pizarro is alone with Young Martin, and speaks to him in confidence; here the audience is encouraged to sympathize with the characters’ predicaments and anxieties. When Pizarro warns Young Martin that the Army is â€Å"Nothing but years of Us against Them† the audience becomes aware of the extreme differences in their opinions and views, which creates great tension and unrest between the characters. Shaffer enables Pizarro to freely suggest the extent of is own greed and betrayal during his duologue scenes with Martin, â€Å"if the time ever came for you to harry me, I’d rip you too, easy as look at you.† Here Shaffer creates more tension, causing the audience to question Pizarro’s loyalty to Martin, whilst hinting at the slightly more malevolent and spiteful side to Pizarro. The duologue scenes between Pizarro and Atahuallpa allow the audience to see the fragile and personal characteristics of the otherwise powerful, dominant male figures. At first Atahuallpa shows his lack of distrust in Pizarro when proclaiming him dishonest â€Å"you have no swear to give†. Atahuallpa takes a leap of faith and trusts his captor, to the surprise of the audience, creating an uneasy and nervous atmosphere. â€Å"You make me laugh! (In sudden wonder) You make me laugh!† It is at this point in the play that Pizarro realizes he has formed a genuine friendship  with Atahuallpa, and the audience feels the tension rise once again as Pizarro is forced to decide the fate of Atahuallpa. A main theme of the play is the contrast between the Inca and Spanish cultures. Atahuallpa is nearly always shown sitting high up in front of the golden sun, showing his power and authority, whereas the Spaniards wore heavy, clumsy clothing, which symbolizes their awkwardness in the foreign land, and their ignorance of other cultures. Domingo says â€Å"God-dammed place. I’m starting to rust.† This could indicate of the immorality and true objectives of their journey. The Spanish consider Atahuallpa to be â€Å"just one savage† when in fact he is the core of the Inca society, this is shown throughout the play. Atahuallpa finds it difficult to understand the Spanish way of life as the Incan religion and society was built on concepts and simplicity rather than material wealth and gain, creating tension. Despite many differences, both religions believe in a supreme being who would rise from the dead. Until Pizarro met Atahuallpa, he had lost faith in all conventional religion, and exclaimed, â€Å"I’m going to die! And the thought of that dark has rotted everything for me.† Atahuallpa gave him a new sense of belonging and introduced him to the Inca religion, â€Å"Believe in me. I will give a word and fill you with joy.† Pizarro found this concept very attractive and was instantly fascinated by Atahuallpa. This creates tension and increases the audience’s interest in the story. The great contrasts between the two cultures and the similarities between the two men create a sense of mystery and rising tension as the story continues, this is greatened by the audience’s knowledge that Pizarro will have to kill Atahuallpa. Shaffer uses stages directions, imagery, sound and narration to create an ongoing sense of tension throughout the play, it is extremely effective. I particularly enjoy his use of duologue scenes to create tension and allow the audience to gain an insight into the story.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Independant Amateur Filipino Film Makers Film Studies Essay

Independant Amateur Filipino Film Makers Film Studies Essay In the spirit of independent expression, the Cinemalaya Awards seeks to discover, encourage and honor the cinematic works of Filipino filmmakers that boldly articulate and freely interpret the Filipino experience with fresh insight and artistic integrity. Cultural Center of the Philippines As of today, we filipinos are very fond of Hollywood films. Cinemas in the Philippines are currently full of different Hollywood films. There are very few films that are recognized throughout the country. This is one of the reasons why the Cultural Center of the Philippines arranged Cinemalaya, an awards show giving Filipino independent films credit. We wonder, though, is it enough? We think that it is absolutely not. Most of the Philippines creative young minds are not recognized by as much people as that of Hollywood films. We also believe that independent films carry more true-to-life stories, and that it actually has more values instilled in it. We find it very disappointing that cinemas today show less of these, and show more of Hollywood films that make us fantasize more than make us realize the harsh realities of life, and how to deal with them in a realistic way. Also, Filipinos nowadays are supporting the movies of other countries more than their own. This is why we are forw arding our proposal that cinemas in the Philippines should showcase more Filipino independent films than Hollywood films. In this paper, we define independent films as films made by amateur Filipino film makers, films that are low-budget, or home-made. We define Hollywood films as films made in Hollywood, films that have high-budget productions, films that have professionals working on it and the like. We will be limiting our statistics to only Philippine Independent films. We will make surveys regarding the awareness of students of independent films, their stand (against it, for it, neutral) on independent films, their views toward independent films. We will also research more about independent films. First of all, we believe that independent films are needed more than Hollywood films when it comes to education, especially for the children. From our observations, weve noticed that independent films capture a more realistic view on life. One example of these independent films is Idol: Pag-asa ng Bayan (2007) which is about an honor student ending up cheating for the sake of his friends, portraying a reality of peer pressure, selfless actions, and of course cheating. Another example is Ang Pagdadalaga ni Maximo Oliveros which focuses on the emotional damage a boy can undergo, as if he was a female. Lastly, the most dramatic and realistic example is Magnifico which shows us how hard life is especially when youre poor. A young mind, Magnifico attempts to help out his family earn by working at such an early age. It shows the effects of poverty, the beauty of simple living or contentment, and the love for family. Whether it focuses on social issues such as cheating (Idol: Pag-asa ng Bayan,2007) or homosexuality (Ang Pagdadalaga ni Maximo Oliveros,2005) or economic issues such as poverty (Magnifico, 2003) , independent films successfully presented actual happenings in our world today. Most Hollywood films, on the other hand, a re fiction, a literary work, history, and the like. Some Hollywood films also depicted realistic stories such as World Trade Center (2006) which focused on the 9-11 bombing, Kramer vs Kramer (1979) which focused on the realities of marriage and family problems, and John Q (2002) which focused economic problems, but these films dont have much of a filipino sense. It is important to be reminded of our values not only as people but as Filipino people, so we should be seeing these realities set on the Philippine situation, the Philippine customs, the Filipino attitude. Another point is that sure, some Hollywood films like Troy (2004), 300 (2007), and Beowulf (2008), are very helpful in our studies, but then we arent planning on removing films like that from cinemas. We just need to have more Filipino independent films because we need more education about the realities of the present situation, as weve established earlier. We also noticed the difference between the objectives and focuses of Philippine independent films and Hollywood films. Weve noticed that Philippine independent films seem to aim to open the minds of children rather than adults. Hollywood films seem to aim to open the minds of adults- parents, teachers etc. Weve also noticed that Philippine independent films seem to aim to remind people of the mistake in actions, mistake in character, and mistake in society. It seems like these films focus on the problems present. Hollywood films on the other hand, seem to aim to make people see possible problems, though these problems are less likely to occur in the Philippines. Like racism, for example, there are fewer races here so the chances of racism are minimal. In terms of focus in target, through research, we were able to find out that independent film, as said by the online Wikipedia focuses on niche audience (Wikipedia, no page), meaning a portion of people, not the general public. Hollywoo d focuses on the general public. We researched more about art films in contrast with Hollywood films. David Bordwell, as Wikipedia said, wrote about the difference of the two kinds of films. According to an article in Wikipedia, Bordwell wrote in his article, The Art Cinema as a Mode of Film Practice(Wikipedia, no page) , that those of Hollywood films use stereotype characters, familiar settings, and wherein the protagonists actions lead to only one end point, sort of like a cause and effect. He also stated that independent films often deal with an inner drama that takes place in a characters psyche. (Bordwell. no page). He also said that its more realistic, and it breaks away from the stereotype, mainstream structures. Looking at these facts, we saw that independent films have more value in content. This is one more reason why there should be more independent films in our cinemas. In terms of appeal, of course the majority will go to Hollywood films. Hollywood films have a greater budget; so of course, they will have trailers that could capture an audiences attention. Since Independent films are low-budget films, they can not advertise their works, or even if they could, they wouldnt bother because as Bordwell said, independent films are focused only on a portion of the public. Hollywood films also have better effects and cinematography than that of independent films. But we dont take this as a liability, mainly because if there is less quality of effects and cinematography, the audience is forced to focus on the main story, the lessons, and more importantly, the problems presented. If youre thinking how are cinemas going to earn money if you put more independent films, which are less appealing to the public? theres answers for that. First of all, there have been films that were made a hit, especially Magnifico (2003), and Ang Pagdadalaga ni Maximo Oliveros (2 005), though not in box office. Independent movies are also beautiful, and we believe that people would like to watch these films if they were aware of this. Also, in Malls, we see a lot of advertisements of films, and if independent films were to be put on big screen, with matching advertisement, people would be encouraged to watch. Lastly, since most people can relate to these films better, theyd be encouraged by people whove seen the film. Therefore, putting these films in theaters wouldnt really affect the cinemas in terms of economy. How many people are actually aware about independent films? Based on our surveys, the average ratios we got were the following: six out of ten people are aware of these independent films, one out of six is for independent films, four out of six are against independent films, and one out of six are neutral about it. This is another problem. The answers we got indicated that many people arent even aware of these films. So, all the more we have to show these independent films. As you can see with the statistics, more filipinos are against it, showing lack of nationalism. If you are wondering What benefits would cinemas gain with this proposal? our proposal has a lot. First of all, it encourages nationalism. By watching an independent filipino film, you support a group of filipino citizens. By supporting these people, you support the country. Second of all, more talent would be recognized. We are used to recognizing the same people as producers, directors, and especially actors. In indep endent films, since you have low budget, you get people who are either unprofessional, or people who have low talent fees, but of course, have talent. So, when the movie hits the theaters, the people who contributed there would be recognized. Also, was we said said in our introduction, there is something called the Cinemalaya awards which is an awarding ceremony for all independent films. If these films are shown in theaters, more people can vote/nominate independent films, plus this awarding ceremony will be given more attention by the public. Furthermore, showing these films in theaters help us showcase the talents of young filipino artist to foreigners. That is something to be proud about. Lastly, as weve said earlier, independent films have more value in content, and are aiming to enlighten or remind us about the realities or problems in life, therefore showing these films in the cinemas are also a way of spreading education to the youth, and even to the adults, especially filip inos. As the world evolves into a more modern world, our values and nationalism goes down. Our talents, its hidden in one corner of the world, while stardom, its just across the theater doors. This is the problem we want to solve. That is why we exposed our views and points about our preposition: The cinemas in the Philippines should showcase more Filipino independent movies than Hollywood Movies. We need to raise our Filipino flag. We have to show them what we have. We have to educate the future of the country. We have to restore the values that were gone. If this proposition is approved, then maybe its another victory for me and you.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Life Without Parole Essay -- essays research papers fc

Capital Punishment in America Capital punishment should be viewed as the stripping away of humanity from a person. The death penalty itself should be "executed" because of racial inequities, the concept of murder, the possibility of error, lack of deterrence, the cost, and an overwhelmed legal system. "The goal of capital punishment is revenge" (Introduction 1). Capital punishment is simply an outlet for the bloodlust of the American people (Introduction 1). The death penalty is very discriminatory when it comes to racial issues. "The death penalty is fraught with abuses and the potential for abuse" (Moral Arguments 1). Capital punishment is largely "divided along racial lines" (Moral Arguments 1). "A 1990 report released by the Federal Government’s General Accounting Office found a ‘pattern of evidence indicating racial disparities in the charging, sentencing, and imposition of the death penalty after the Furman decision’" (Moral Arguments 1). In the 1970’s, Professor David Baldus examined sentencing patterns in Georgia. He reviewed over two-thousand five hundred homicide cases in Georgia and controlled for two-hundred and thirty non-racial factors. His conclusion was that "a person accused of killing a white was 4.3 times more likely to be sentenced to death than a person accused of killing a black" (Moral Arguments 1). Imagine the statistics when one adds the rest of the states in our country. Capital punishment is murder. It really doesn’t matter how you look at it. The end result is still the same. "What is the difference between the state killing and an individual killing" (Moral Arguments 1). It adds up to be the same end result. It is "one more dead body, one more set of grieving parents, and one more cemetery slot. When we execute someone, we are sending a profound message of cynicism" about the value of human life (Moral Arguments 2). "Every time we execute someone," we are sinking to the same level as the killer (Moral Arguments 2). "The American people have blood on their hands, and it will stay there until we finally remove this barbaric practice from our nation" (Moral Arguments 2). One of the most apparent reasons the d... ... The death penalty is based upon revenge against the murderer. All it adds up to at the end of the day is another corpse to bury. Works Cited "Death." "Fight the Death Penalty in USA." "Innocence and the Death Penalty." Greenberg, Jack. "Taking Sides." Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. 1991. "Introduction." "Moral Arguments Against the Death Penalty." "Netmonkey’s Death Penalty Page." "Pragmatic Arguments Against the Death Penalty." United States. President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society." New York: Avon, 1968.

Friday, October 11, 2019

A Single Mother Essay

What is a single mother? I doubt that anyone can truly understand that question unless they have been there themselves. I know one thing for certain, a single mother is someone who is filled with everlasting unconditional love. The definition of a mother to me is putting your life on hold while you perform the most difficult and thankless job. My younger brother and I were raised by my mom since I was 6 years old. I am now at an age where I can reflect and appreciate what it is to be a single mom. The person who first helped me safely across the street; who watched in exhilaration as I learned to ride a bike for the first time; who taught me the difference between right and wrong. Even though juggling family and career often seems like a daunting task, she somehow did it every day. I admit, at times, she would get frustrated and want to give up. My dad was out of the picture and not contributing to child support. My mom and my brother and me were on our own. My mom had us very young and never had the opportunity to get a college degree. She supported our family on a very small salary by working at the local bank. My mom always put the needs and wants of brother and I before herself. I want to describe the exhilaration in my Mother’s eyes as I learn to ride a bike for the first time. The belly laugh of a baby who is touching the soft fur of a dog or cat for the first time. She says, she can taste the joy that is real, bringing her back to the first time. My hero is a blessed gift from GOD†¦..she is my Mother. However decisive she is at the office, she second guesses herself as a mother. Everyday decisions are no longer routine, it becomes a major dilemma for a five year old boy’s desire to go to the Men’s room rather than the Women’s at McDonald’s. That right there, in the midst of clattering trays and screaming children, issues of independence and gender identity will be weighted against the prospect of a child molester lurking in that restroom. At times, I admit, she would get frustrated, and want to give up. You want to  relax, but you endure the sleepless nights, crying babies, teaching the difference between right and wrong. Household duties that seem never ending, rushing to the office and barely making it there on time. I may be a parent someday and then, maybe, I will realize some of the many great sacrifices that makes her a mother.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Inclusion in own area of responsibility Essay

1.1 – Explain models of practice that underpin equality, diversity and inclusion in own area of responsibility It is important to understand the positive values of equality and diversity in my role as all service users are vulnerable whether physically or mentally. Caring for others and engaging with them engaging in decisions in relation to their life, health and wellbeing exercises a certain amount of power over the vulnerable adult. This has the potential to be misused or abused. Staff members understanding of equality and diversity greatly influences their behaviour in their role. The staff members approach to both equality and diversity will have a direct impact on both increasing equality and removing discrimination or help reinforce inequality and discrimination. It is often argued that discrimination is often carried out unknowingly or due to ignorance, insensitivity or common held beliefs that are not challenged. No matter how justified, there is no place for discrimi nation in a care setting. It is the responsibility of the manager to promote ant-discrimination and raise staff awareness about equality, diversity ad inclusion. see more:barriers to equality and inclusion Equality means to treat others with respect and as individuals. It is important not to confuse the meaning if equality as it does not mean to treat everyone the same. Every person is unique and is individual so in order to promote equality it is important to treat everyone fairly. Each person has their own needs, wishes and preferences so it is imperative that these are respected. A popular model of promoting equality is through the equal opportunities approach. It is helpful to have a good understanding of equality on order to understand that all individuals should have the same opportunities to achieve a good outcome. The equal opportunities approach is based on the idea that the starting point for all individuals should all be the same. This means that barriers to these opportunities, were possible, are removed and positive interventions are implemented. An equal opportunities approach also means that all individuals are treated the same regardless of age, race, colour, sex, religion, disability and sexuality. For example, it would be discriminatory to produce a job advert for a female receptionist as gender of the applicant is irrelevant. If the person is suited to the job role and has the necessary qualifications, gender in the role is irrelevant. If a  person whether male or female is qualified and capable of doing the job role then whether they are male or female does not make any difference. This approach encourages in individuals to reflect on potential and actual barriers to opportunities and propose and implement ways of overcoming these. The equal opportunities approach proves very successful in improving equality and inclusion. There are several anti-discriminatory legislations in place: Sex Discrimination Act 1975 Equal Pay Act 1970 Race Relations Act 1976 Disability Discrimination Act 1995 Equality Act 2006 Some critics believe the equal opportunities approach suggest that social structures and behaviours are so deeply discriminatory that, even when opportunities are equalised, some individuals will still be unable to overcome barriers and realise their full potential. Equality involves fairness and diversity involves valuing difference. Walker identified that the difference and diversity model is based on four key principles: Individuals function best when they feel valued People feel more valued when they believe their individual and group differences are valued The ability to learn from those who are different is the key to becoming empowered When individuals are valued and respected they can work independently and as part of a team to build relationships There are two models that link with equality, diversity and inclusion, the first one is the social model of disability which views discrimination and prejudice as being embedded in today’s society, their attitude’s and their surrounding environment. The social model focuses on who the adult is as person not what their disability or diagnosis is, the focus is on how to improve and empower the individual’s life and lead a more independent life as possible. The second model is the medical model of disability which views adults has having an impairment or lacking in some way, this model focuses on impairments that the adult has and finding and acknowledging ways to correct them. The client group at my current place of work are adults with  mild learning disability and some of the residents have a dual diagnosis of mental health issues as well. Both the social and medical model has an impact on their daily life. The home’s ethos is to empower the residents and in able them to lead a normal life as possible. This is done by providing and engaging them in their own individualised care plans and asking their opinions on what they like how they like it etc. allowing them to make informed choices for them self and whether they have the capacity to make these decisions. 1.2 – Analyse the potential effects of barriers to equality and inclusion in own area of responsibility Inclusion, equality of opportunity and anti-discrimination are central principles in social care. All activity needs to be planned on the basis that some people may need additional support to overcome the barriers they face. Barriers are those things that prevent or make access to a service more difficult for certain groups and individuals. The barriers faced in your own workplace will be related to your own working environment and on the area of care you work in. These barriers could include one or more of the following:  · age  · gender or gender identity  · disability – physical or sensory impairment  · faith  · ethnic origin  · sexual orientation  · communication, literacy and language It is important that an organisation culture is developed which reflects and reinforces a commitment to valuing diversity. It is the responsibility of the manager to ensure that all team members are aware what the values of the organisation are and understands that they are all expected to adopt these values. Clear expectations should be made available through training when onboarding all new team member so they are aware of what is expected of them prior to beginning their new role. It is important to raise awareness of equality and diversity. Managers should be perceived to set an example and enact the organisations values. Barriers: Our own personal beliefs and values are often deeply ingrained from our own personal upbringing and culture. It is only when these values and beliefs and values are challenged by new experiences that demonstrate that those beliefs may be flawed, that many people’s values are reflected on and, where appropriate changed. Evaluating beliefs and values are a good way to break down prejudice. Prejudice is often not an individual belief but is a more wide spread issue makes this a difficult problem to eliminate. In an organisation individuals should be made aware from the beginning that prejudice will not be tolerated and that team members are encouraged, supported and protected to speak out against it. Managers who are able to create a culture of discussion, tolerance and an open minded community are often proven as the most successful leaders. Prejudice can lead to unacceptable behaviour such as bullying, harassment and abuse of power which can infringe on the rights of others. If this occurs in the workplace disciplinary action should be undertaken in order to comply with organisational values and beliefs. There are also structural barriers to equality and inclusion. For example, a workplace without accessible toilets for those in wheelchairs is discriminatory and against the law. Barriers of any kind can make an individual feel disrespected and not valued. All individuals have a right to be treated fairly regardless of their age, race, sex, culture, beliefs, religion or disability. For example, if a vacancy for a promotion became available and the manager wanted an English person to fill the position. This would be discrimination on the basis of an individual’s race. By being English does not necessarily mean they will be better at the role. It is important to give all individuals a fair chance at the position and clearly nominate the best person for the role by judging them on their qualifications and suitability for the role and not because of their race, culture, age, sex or disability. 1.3 – Analyse the impact of legislation and policy initiatives on the promotion of equality, diversity and inclusion in own area of responsibility Equality is a state of being equal in terms of value, quantity or quality. It is about uniformity. It is also about ensuring that people are treated fairly and given fair chances. Equality is not about treating everyone in exactly the same way, it is about recognising and valuing individual needs  and seeking to meet them in different ways. Diversity means differences, varieties, and unlikeness. It is understanding and coping with peoples’ differences so that they can be effective using them to one’s advantage. Inclusion is seen as a universal human right. The aim of inclusion is to embrace all people irrespective of race, gender, disability, medical or other need. It is about giving equal access and opportunities and getting rid of discrimination and intolerance (removal of barriers). It affects all aspects of public life.

Chemistry- Alkanes and Alkenes

The process of naming compounds allows chemists to communicate formulae in words rather than in chemical symbols. There are, however, a few rules about naming compounds which need to be known in order to write a formula in word form or translate a compound in word form into chemical symbols. Ionic compounds If the compound is ionic, then the name of the cation (usually metal) comes first, followed by the ‘compound' name of the anion.To find the compound name of an anion, replace the end of the element's name with ‘ide'. name of cation + name of anion, suffix ‘ide' E. g. NaCl: sodium, the cation, first, followed by chlorine changed with the suffix ‘ide' = sodium chloride If the anion is polyatomic and contains oxygen, then the suffix is ‘ate'. name of cation + name of polyatomic oxygen anion, suffix ‘ate' E. g. Na2CO3: sodium, the cation, first, followed by a polyatomic group containing carbon and oxygen to form carbonate = sodium carbonate Note:E. g. MgO: magnesium, the cation, first, followed by oxygen changed with the suffix ‘ide' because oxygen is the sole ion and not part of a polyatomic group = magnesium oxide Sometimes if the compound contains hydrogen, the word ‘hydrogen' shortens to ‘bi' such as with NaHCO3, which is known as sodium hydrogen carbonate or sodium bicarbonate. Hydrogen compounds If the compound contains hydrogen and a metal, the metal comes first, followed by the word ‘hydride', to denote the hydrogen component. etal + hydride E. g. NaH: sodium, the metal, first, followed by hydrogen changed with the suffix ‘ide' = sodium hydride If the compound contains hydrogen and a non-metal and does not contain water (H2O), then the hydrogen comes first, followed by the element's name replaced with the ‘ide' suffix. hydrogen + non-metal, suffix ‘ide' E. g. HF: hydrogen first, followed by fluorine changed with the suffix ‘ide' = hydrogen fluoride If the hydrogen non-met al compound dissolves in water, it tarts with the ‘hydro' prefix, followed by the element's name replaced with an ‘ic' suffix, followed by ‘acid'. hydro(name of element, suffix ‘ic') acid E. g. HCl: hydro, then chlorine with an ‘ic' suffix, then ‘acid' = hydrochloric acid Oxygen compounds When naming ionic compounds that contain oxygen the basic rule is similar. If the compound contains hydrogen and an oxygen anion (oxyanion) and does not contain water, then hydrogen comes first, followed by the element name with the suffix ‘ate'. hydrogen + element, suffix ‘ate' E. g.HCO3: hydrogen followed by carbon with the suffix ‘ate' = hydrogen carbonate The ‘ate' rule is used for the most common or the only compound made with an oxyanion. Some compounds, however, form more than one type of compound with oxygen and the amount of oxygen will affect the prefixes and suffixes used. This occurs for all oxyanions, with or without hydrogen involved. Table 1. 1: Naming more than one type of oxygen compound Oxygen level| Prefix| Element| Suffix| A little oxygen| hypo-| | -ite| Some oxygen| | | -ite| More oxygen| | | -ate| A lot of oxygen| per-| | -ate|E. g. Chlorine forms four different oxyanions named: ClO = hypochlorite ClO2 = chlorite ClO3 = chlorate ClO4 = perchlorate The oxygen level corresponds with the relative amounts in different compounds and not necessarily the specific numbers of oxygen atoms. If an element forms just two types of oxyanion compounds, then the suffixes ‘ite' and ‘ate' will suffice. If the hydrogen oxyanion compound is dissolved in water, it forms an acid using similar rules, only the ‘ite' suffix changes to ‘ous' and the ‘ate' suffix changes to ‘ic', followed by the word ‘acid'.Table 1. 2: Naming more than one type of hydrogen oxyanion acid Oxygen level| Prefix| Element| Suffix| Acid| A little oxygen| hypo-| | -ous| | Some oxygen| | | -ous| | More oxy gen| | | -ic| | A lot of oxygen| per-| | -ic| | E. g. The above example with chlorine and oxygen plus hydrogen: HClO = hypochlorous acid HClO2 = chlorous acid HClO3 = chloric acid HClO4 = perchloric acid Covalent compounds If a compound contains two non-metals in a covalent bond, then: * the least electronegative element is named first if the compound contains hydrogen, hydrogen is named first * the number of atoms of each element is indicated by a prefix * if the first element only has one atom the prefix is not used * the name of the element has the suffix ‘ide' least electronegative + number prefix, most electronegative element, suffix ‘ide' The prefixes used to number the atoms come from Greek and are as follows: 1 = mono- or mon- 2 = di- 3 = tri- 4 = tetra- 5 = penta- | 6 = hexa- 7 = hepta- 8 = octa- 9 = nona- 10 = deca-| E. g.CO: carbon, the least electronegative atom, first, followed by the prefix ‘mon' to indicate one atom of oxygen, the most electronegativ e atom, with the suffix ‘ide' = carbon monoxide CO2 carbon, the least electronegative atom, first, followed by the prefix ‘di' to indicate two atoms of oxygen, the most electronegative atom, with the suffix ‘ide' = carbon dioxide H2O the prefix ‘di' to indicate two atoms of hydrogen, which has naming priority, followed by ‘mon' to indicate one atom of oxygen = dihydrogen monoxide Common names There are a number of common names that chemists like to use instead of the proper scientific names.Most common names and formulae are well-known. It is recommended that common names and formulae be written down as they are encountered so they can be memorised later. Here are a few examples: Common name | Proper name| Chemical formula| water| dihydrogen monoxide| H2O| baking soda| sodium hydrogen carbonate| NaHCO3| table salt| sodium chloride| NaCl| limestone| calcium carbonate| CaCO3| quartz| silicon dioxide| SiO2| See animation 1. What is an acid? Ancient civilis ations had already identified acid as a sour-tasting substance that corroded metal, but confirmation about the exact nature of acid eluded chemists until the 20th century.Early in the 20th century, a number of chemists developed specific chemical definitions for the term ‘acid', although many of these definitions refer to subatomic processes, going into much greater depth than required here. The simplest, most general definition is that an acid is a substance that contains hydrogen and which can release hydrogen cations (H+) during a reaction. The strength of an acid depends on its ability to release hydrogen ions – stronger acids release hydrogen ions more readily. Some of the properties of acid are that they: * Dissolve in water to form excess hydrogen ions Are highly reactive and will corrode most metals * Conduct electricity * Have a sour taste (strong acids are dangerous and should not be taste-tested) * Produce a stinging sensation (as above, strong acids should n ot be handled) There are some common edible acids such as citric acid, which is found in fruits like oranges, lemons and limes, acetic acid, found in vinegar, carbonic acid, which is the ‘fizz' in soft drinks and dairy products, which contain lactic acid. Examples of other acids include: sulphuric acid, present in batteries; and hydrochloric acid, which breaks down food in your stomach. See image 1.Acids like vinegar are used to preserve food because many organisms cannot live in an acidic environment. Similarly, fermentation of food can also produce an acidic environment for preservation purposes – vinegar is an acetic acid formed from grapes, lactic acid comes from fermentation of milk. What is a base? Bases are substances with the opposite properties to acids, that is, a base is a substance that accepts hydrogen ions in a reaction. Strong bases will accept more hydrogen ions than weak ones. Alkalis are soluble bases that contain hydroxide ions (OH-). Some properties of bases include that they: Dissolve in water to absorb excess hydrogen ions * Neutralise the effect of acid * Denature (change the molecular structure) of proteins * Have a bitter taste (strong bases are dangerous and should not be taste-tested) * Feel soapy (as above, strong bases should not be handled) Basic substances in everyday use include sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as sodium bicarbonate, used in baking to help bread rise, sodium carbonate, used to make soap, and magnesium hydroxide, commonly used in indigestion remedies. Because of an ability to denature proteins, basic substances break down grease and make good cleaners.Considering that the human body is made up of proteins, this makes bases more dangerous for humans than acids. Clarification of terms Before proceeding, it is important to clarify some terms used in experiments with acids and bases. Strong substances are either acids that readily lose hydrogen cations or bases that readily gain hydrogen ions; weak substances less readily lose or gain hydrogen ions. For clarity, concentrated acids and bases are either pure or come dissolved in very little water, while dilute substances are dissolved in a lot of water.Therefore, strong and weak refer to the chemical reactivity of an acidic/basic substance while dilute and concentrate refer to the ratio of water into which the substance dissolves. Indicators It is also important to learn about some of the ways in which to test the strength of acidic and basic substances, since it is not permitted to taste or touch chemicals in a laboratory environment. Chemical substances are classified as acidic (containing acid), basic (containing base) or neutral (containing neither acid nor base). Chemists have developed a number of methods to test the acidity or alkalinity of a substance using chemical indicators.These indicators use the pH scale, with measurements from one to 14 based on the activity of hydrogen ions in the solution. Substances with a low pH are acidic. Substances with a reading of seven are neutral while basic solutions will elicit a higher reading. Developed by Danish scientist Soren Sorensen, the pH scale may have come from the German word ‘potenz' (meaning power or potency) and ‘H', the chemical symbol for hydrogen. It is also possible the term is derived from the Latin ‘pondus hydrogenii', which translates to ‘weight of hydrogen'. See animation 1.Many plants are excellent indicators of pH as they need optimum acidity/alkalinity in the soil to grow. Hydrangeas produce white or blue flowers in acidic soil or pink flowers in basic soil. Blue or red litmus paper, made from a fungal/bacterial growth called lichen, turns red in acid or blue in a base but will not change colour in a neutral solution. A synthetic indicator, bromothymol blue, starts blue and then changes yellow in acid. If placed in a basic or neutral substance it will remain blue. Another indicator would be needed to find out if the substance were neutral or basic.This demonstrates that when using an indicator it is necessary to observe a change in colour to define whether a substance is acidic, basic or neutral. Most indicators have only two colours. The universal indicator is an instrument that mixes several types of indicators and colours in order to show whether a substance is acidic, basic or neutral. Universal indicators have a colour scale that corresponds to the numbered pH scale. After testing, the colour of the paper is matched to a number on the scale for a more exact reading of acidity or alkalinity. See image 2. ReactionsSince acids and bases are more or less opposite substances, they tend to cancel each other out in a process called neutralisation. This reaction produces a salt and water. acid + base salt + water Neutralisation is commonly used in a number of remedies, such as the treatment of bites and stings. Bluebottles inject a basic substance when they sting, so a weak acid like vinegar ( acetic acid) will neutralise a bluebottle sting. Conversely, bee stings are slightly acidic, so a bee sting would be neutralised with a weak base, such as sodium bicarbonate. Seafood gives off an odour due to the basic amines it contains.An acidic acid substance such as lemon juice is squeezed over it to neutralise the smell. Excess acid in the stomach causes indigestion, so it can be neutralised with a weak base called an antacid. An example of an equation using this format is when hydrochloric acid meets sodium hydroxide to form sodium chloride and water: HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O Adding an acid to a base does not necessarily mean that the product is automatically neutralised. The strength of each of the reactants must be matched so that all the ions released by the acid find a place with the base.A strong acid with a weak base will result in an acidic salt, a weak acid with a strong base will result in a basic salt, while acids and bases of the same strength will neutralise completel y. Both acidic and metallic substances are highly reactive, which is why acid reacts aggressively in the presence of metal, corroding the metal much faster than moisture and air. The combination of an acid and a metal produces a metallic salt and hydrogen gas in an equation represented like this: acid + metal metallic salt + hydrogen The hydrogen ions are easily lost and replaced by the metallic ions, forming a metallic salt.The hydrogen then forms molecules with itself, resulting in hydrogen gas. An example of this is sulphuric acid and magnesium producing magnesium sulphate salt and hydrogen gas: H2SO4 + Mg MgSO4 + H2 No Flash, No Problem Highlight to reveal names Formula| Names| N2F6| Dinitrogen Hexafluoride| CO2| Carbon Dioxide| SiF4| Silicon Tetrafluoride| CBr4| Carbon Tetrabromide| NCl3| Nitrogen Trichloride| P2S3| Diphosphorous Trisulfide| CO| Carbon Monoxide| NO2| Nitrogen Dioxide| SF2| Sulfur Difluoride| PF5| Phosphorous Pentafluoride| SO2| Sulfur Dioxide| NO| Nitrogen Mono xide| CCl4| carbon tetrachloride|P2O5| diphosphorus pentoxide| | | Rules 1. The first element is named first, using the elements name. 2. Second element is named as an Anion (suffix â€Å"-ide†) 3. Prefixes are used to denote the number of atoms 4. â€Å"Mono† is not used to name the first element Note: when the addition of the Greek prefix places two vowels adjacent to one another, the â€Å"a† (or the â€Å"o†) at the end of the Greek prefix is usually dropped; e. g. , â€Å"nonaoxide† would be written as â€Å"nonoxide†, and â€Å"monooxide† would be written as â€Å"monoxide†. The â€Å"i† at the end of the prefixes â€Å"di-† and â€Å"tri-† are never dropped. Prefix| number indicated| | mono-| 1| | di-| 2| | tri-| 3| | tetra-| 4| | penta-| 5| | hexa-| 6| | hepta-| 7| | octa-| 8| | nona-| 9| | deca-| 10| Carbon Allotropes by siebo— last modified April 20, 2007 – 11:54 The allotropes of ca rbon are the different molecular configurations (allotropes) that pure carbon can take. Following is a list of the allotropes of carbon, ordered by notability, and extent of industrial use. Diamond Main article: Diamond Diamond is one of the best known allotropes of carbon, whose hardness and high dispersion of light make it useful for industrial applications and jewelry.Diamond is the hardest known natural mineral, making it an excellent abrasive and also means a diamond holds its polish extremely well and retains luster. The market for industrial-grade diamonds operates much differently from its gem-grade counterpart. Industrial diamonds are valued mostly for their hardness and heat conductivity, making many of the gemological characteristics of diamond, including clarity and color, mostly irrelevant. This helps explain why 80% of mined diamonds (equal to about 100 million carats or 20,000 kg annually), unsuitable for use as gemstones and known as bort, are destined for industrial use.In addition to mined diamonds, synthetic diamonds found industrial applications almost immediately after their invention in the 1950s; another 400 million carats (80,000 kg) of synthetic diamonds are produced annually for industrial use—nearly four times the mass of natural diamonds mined over the same period. The dominant industrial use of diamond is in cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing. Most uses of diamonds in these technologies do not require large diamonds; in fact, most diamonds that are gem-quality except for their small size, can find an industrial use.Diamonds are embedded in drill tips or saw blades, or ground into a powder for use in grinding and polishing applications. Specialized applications include use in laboratories as containment for high pressure experiments (see diamond anvil), high-performance bearings, and limited use in specialized windows. With the continuing advances being made in the production ofsynthetic diamond, future applications a re beginning to become feasible. Garnering much excitement is the possible use of diamond as asemiconductor suitable to build microchips from, or the use of diamond as a heat sink in electronics.Significant research efforts in Japan, Europe, and the United Statesare under way to capitalize on the potential offered by diamond's unique material properties, combined with increased quality and quantity of supply starting to become available from synthetic diamond manufacturers. Each carbon atom in diamond is covalently bonded to four othercarbons in a tetrahedron. These tetrahedrons together form a 3-dimensional network of puckered six-membered rings of atoms. This stable network of covalent bonds and the three dimensional arrangement of bonds that diamond is so strong. GraphiteMain article: Graphite Graphite (named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789, from the Greek : â€Å"to draw/write†, for its use in pencils) is oneof the most common allotropes of carbon. Unlike diamond, grap hite is a conductor, and can be used, for instance, as the material in the electrodes of an electrical arc lamp. Graphite holds the distinction ofbeing the most stable form of solid carbon ever discovered. Graphite is able to conduct electricity due to the unpaired fourth electron in each carbon atom. This unpaired 4th electron forms delocalisedplanes above and below the planes of the carbon atoms.These electrons are free to move, so are able to conduct electricity. However, the electricity is only conducted within the plane of the layers. Graphite powder is used as a dry lubricant. Although it might be thought that this industrially important property is due entirely to the loose interlamellar coupling between sheets in the structure, in fact in a vacuum environment (such as in technologies for use in space), graphite was found to be a very poor lubricant. This fact lead to the discovery that graphite's lubricity is due to adsorbed air and water between the layers, unlike other lay ered dry lubricants such as molybdenum disulfide.Recent studies suggest that an effect called superlubricity can also account for this effect. When a large number of crystallographic defects bind these planes together, graphite loses its lubrication properties and becomes what is known as pyrolytic carbon, a useful material in blood-contacting implants such as prosthetic heart valves. Natural and crystalline graphites are not often used in pure form as structural materials due to their shear-planes, brittleness and inconsistent mechanical properties.In its pure glassy (isotropic) synthetic forms, pyrolytic graphite and carbon fiber graphite is an extremely strong, heat-resistant (to 3000  °C) material, used in reentry shields for missile nosecones, solid rocket engines, high temperature reactors, brake shoes and electric motor brushes. Intumescent or expandable graphites are used in fire seals, fitted around the perimeter of a fire door. During a fire the graphite intumesces (expa nds and chars) to resist fire penetration and prevent the spread of fumes. A typical start expansion temperature (SET) is between 150 and 300 degrees Celsius.Amorphous carbon Main article: Amorphous carbon Amorphous carbon is the name used for carbon that does not have any crystalline structure. As with all glassy materials, some short-range order can be observed, but there is no long-range pattern of atomic positions. While entirely amorphous carbon can be made, most of the material described as â€Å"amorphous† actually contains crystallites of graphite [1] or diamond [2]with varying amounts of amorphous carbon holding them together, making them technically polycrystalline or nanocrystalline materials.Commercial carbon also usually contains significant quantities of other elements, which may form crystalline impurities. Coal and soot are both informally called amorphous carbon. However, both are products of pyrolysis, which does not produce true amorphous carbon under norma l conditions. The coal industry divides coal up into various grades depending on the amount of carbon present in the sample compared to the amount ofimpurities. The highest grade, anthracite, is about 90 percent carbon and 10% other elements. Bituminous coal is about 75-90 percent carbon, and lignite is the name for coal that is around 55 percent carbon.Fullerenes Main article: Fullerene The fullerenes are recently-discovered allotropes of carbon named after the scientist and architect Richard Buckminster Fuller, but were discovered in 1985 by a team of scientists from Rice University and the University of Sussex, three of whom were awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. They are molecules composed entirely of carbon, which take the form ofa hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. Spherical fullerenes are sometimes called buckyballs, while cylindrical fullerenes are called buckytubes or nanotubes.As of the early twenty-first century, the chemical and physical properties of fullerenes are still under heavy study, in both pure and applied research labs. In April 2003, fullerenes were under study for potential medicinal use — binding specific antibiotics to the structure to target resistant bacteria and even target certain cancer cells such as melanoma. Fullerenes are similar in structure to graphite, which is composedof a sheet of linked hexagonal rings, but they contain pentagonal (or sometimes heptagonal) rings that prevent the sheet from being planar. Carbon nanotubes Main article: Carbon nanotubeCarbon nanotubes are cylindrical carbon molecules with novel properties that make them potentially useful in a wide variety of applications (e. g. , nano-electronics, optics, materials applications, etc. ). They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient conductors of heat. Inorganic nanotubes have also been synthesized. A nanotube (also known as a buckytube) is a member of the fullerene structural family, which also incl udes buckyballs. Whereas buckyballs are spherical in shape, a nanotube is cylindrical, with at least one end typically capped with a hemisphere of the buckyball structure.Their name is derived from their size, since the diameter of a nanotube is on the order of a few nanometers(approximately 50,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair), while they can be up to several centimeters in length. There are two main types of nanotubes: single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs). Aggregated diamond nanorods Main article: Aggregated diamond nanorods Aggregated diamond nanorods, or ADNRs, are an allotrope of carbon believed to be the least compressible material known to humankind, as measured by its sothermal bulk modulus; aggregated diamond nanorods have a modulus of 491 gigapascals (GPa), while a conventional diamondhas a modulus of 442 GPa. ADNRs are also 0. 3% denser than regular diamond. The ADNR material is also harder than type IIa diamond and ultrahard fullerite. Glassy carbon Main article: Glassy carbon Glassy carbon is a class of non-graphitizing carbon which is widely used as an electrode material in electrochemistry, as well as for high temperature crucibles and as a component of some prosthetic devices.It was first produced by workers at the laboratories of The General Electric Company, UK, in the early 1960s, using cellulose as the starting material. A short time later, Japanese workers produced a similar material from phenolic resin. The preparation of glassy carbon involves subjecting the organic precursors to a series of heat treatments at temperatures up to 3000oC. Unlike many non-graphitizing carbons, they are impermeable to gases and are chemically extremely inert, especially those which have been prepared at very high temperatures.It has been demonstrated that the rates of oxidation of certain glassy carbons in oxygen, carbon dioxide or water vapour are lower than those of any other carbon. They are also highly resist ant to attack by acids. Thus, while normal graphiteis reduced to a powder by a mixture of concentrated sulphuric and nitric acids at room temperature, glassy carbon is unaffected by such treatment, even after several months. Carbon nanofoam Main article: Carbon nanofoam Carbon nanofoam is the fifth known allotrope of carbon discovered in 1997 by Andrei V.Rode and co-workers at the Australian National University in Canberra. It consists of a low-density cluster-assembly of carbon atoms strung together in a loose three-dimensional web. Each cluster is about 6 nanometers wide and consists of about 4000 carbon atoms linked in graphite-like sheets that are given negative curvature by the inclusion of heptagons among the regular hexagonal pattern. This is the opposite of what happens in the case of buckminsterfullerenes, in which carbon sheets are given positive curvature by the inclusion of pentagons.The large-scale structure of carbon nanofoam is similar to that of an aerogel, but with 1% of the density of previously produced carbon aerogels – only a few times the density of air at sea level. Unlike carbon aerogels, carbon nanofoam is a poor electrical conductor. Lonsdaleite Main article: Lonsdaleite Lonsdaleite is a hexagonal allotrope of the carbon allotrope diamond, believed to form when meteoric graphite falls to Earth. The great heat and stress of the impact transforms the graphite into diamond, but retains graphite's hexagonal crystal lattice.Lonsdaleite was first identified from the Canyon Diablo meteorite at Barringer Crater (also known as Meteor Crater) in Arizona. It was first discovered in 1967. Lonsdaleite occurs as microscopic crystals associated with diamond in the Canyon Diablo meteorite; Kenna meteorite, New Mexico; and Allan Hills (ALH) 77283, Victoria Land, Antarctica meteorite. It has also been reported from the Tunguska impact site, Russia. Chaoite Main article: Chaoite Chaoite is a mineral believed to have been formed in meteorite impac ts.It has been described as slightly harder than graphite with a reflection colour of grey to white. However, the existence of carbyne phases is disputed – see the entry on chaoite for details. Variability of carbon The system of carbon allotropes spans an astounding range ofextremes, considering that they are all merely structural formations ofthe same element. Between diamond and graphite * Diamond is hardest mineral known to man (10 on Mohs scale), but graphite is one of the softest (1 – 2 on Mohs scale). * Diamond is the ultimate abrasive, but graphite is a very good lubricant. Diamond is an excellent electrical insulator, but graphite is a conductor of electricity. * Diamond is usually transparent, but graphite is opaque. * Diamond crystallizes in the isometric system but graphite crystallizes in the hexagonal system. Between amorphous carbon and nanotubes * Amorphous carbon is among the easiest materials to synthesize, but carbon nanotubes are extremely expensive to make. * Amorphous carbon is completely isotropic, but carbon nanotubes are among the most anisotropic materials ever produced. ALKENE NAMES Root names give the number of carbons in the longest continuous chain.Alkene names are formed by dropping the â€Å"ane† and replacing it with â€Å"ene†The following list gives samples:Example: root = propane – drop â€Å"ane† = â€Å"prop† alkene = â€Å"prop† + alkene ending = â€Å"ene† = propene | No. of Carbons| Root Name| Formula CnH2n| Structure| 2| ethene| C2H4| CH2=CH2| 3| propene| C3H6| CH2=CHCH3| 4| 1-butene| C4H8| CH2=CHCH2CH3| 5| 1-pentene| C5H10| CH2=CHCH2CH2CH3| Following is a list of alkanes showing their chemical formulas, their names, the number of isomers, and the melting and the boiling point. Please note that, except for the first four alkanes (n=1.. ), their chemical names can be derived from the number of C atoms by using Greek numerical prefixes denoting the number of carbons and the suffix â€Å"-ane†. Formula| Name(s)| No. of Isomers| m. p. [ °C]| b. p. [ °C]| CH4| methane (natural gas)| 1| -183| -162| C2H6| ethane| 1| -172| -89| C3H8| propane; dimethyl methane| 1| -188| -42| C4H10| n-butane; methylethyl methane| 2| -138| 0| C5H12| n-pentane| 3| -130| 36| C6H14| n-hexane| 5| -95| 69| C7H16| n-heptane| 9| -91| 98| C8H18| n-octane| 18| -57| 126| C9H20| n-nonane| 35| -54| 151| C10H22| n-decane| 75| -30| 174|The simplest organic compounds are hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons contain only two elements, hydrogen and carbon. A saturated hydrocarbon or alkane is a hydrocarbon in which all of the carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds. Each carbon atom forms four bonds and each hydrogen forms a single bond to a carbon. The bonding around each carbon atom is tetrahedral, so all bond angles are 109. 5 °. As a result, the carbon atoms in higher alkanes are arranged in zig-zag rather than linear patterns. Straight Chain Alkanes The general formula for an alkane is CnH2n+2 where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.There are two ways of writing a condensed structural formula. For example, butane may be written as CH3CH2CH2CH3 or CH3(CH2)2CH3. Rules for Naming Alkanes * The parent name of the molecule is determined by the number of carbons in the longest chain. * In the case where two chains have the same number of carbons, the parent is the chain with the most substituents. * The carbons in the chain are numbered starting from the end nearest the first substituent. * In the case where there are substituents having the same number of carbons from both ends, numbering starts from the end nearest the next substituent. When more than one of a given substituent is present, a prefix is applied to indicate the number of substituents. Use di- for two, tri- for three, tetra- for four, etc. and use the number assigned to the carbon to indicate the position of each substituent. Branched Alkanes * Branched substituents are numbered starting from the carbon of the substituent attached to the parent chain. From this carbon, count the number of carbons in the longest chain of the substituent. The substituent is named as an alkyl group based on the number of carbons in this chain. Numbering of the substituent chain starts from the carbon attached to the parent chain. * The entire name of the branched substituent is placed in parentheses, preceded by a number indicating which parent-chain carbon it joins. * Substituents are listed in alphabetical order. To alphabetize, ignore numerical (di-, tri-, tetra-) prefixes (e. g. , ethyl would come before dimethyl), but don't ignore don't ignore positional prefixes such as iso and tert (e. g. , triethyl comes before tertbutyl). Cyclic Alkanes * The parent name is determined by the number of carbons in the largest ring (e. g. , cycloalkane such as cyclohexane). In the case where the ring is attached to a chain containing additional carbons, the ring is considered to be a su bstituent on the chain. A substituted ring that is a substituent on something else is named using the rules for branched alkanes. * When two rings are attached to each other, the larger ring is the parent and the smaller is a cycloalkyl substituent. * The carbons of the ring are numbered such that the substituents are given the lowest possible numbers. Straight Chain Alkanes # Carbon| Name| Molecular Formula| Structural Formula| 1 | Methane | CH4 | CH4 | 2 | Ethane | C2H6 | CH3CH3 | | Propane | C3H8 | CH3CH2CH3 | 4 | Butane | C4H10 | CH3CH2CH2CH3 | 5 | Pentane | C5H12 | CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 | 6 | Hexane | C6H14 | CH3(CH2)4CH3 | 7 | Heptane | C7H16 | CH3(CH2)5CH3 | 8 | Octane | C8H18 | CH3(CH2)6CH3 | 9 | Nonane | C9H20 | CH3(CH2)7CH3 | 10 | Decane | C10H22 | CH3(CH2)8CH3 | Alkenes contain carbon-carbon double bonds. They are also called unsaturated hydrocarbons. The molecular formular is CnH2n. This is the same molecular formula as a cycloalkane. Structure of Alkenes 1. The two carbon ato ms of a double bond and the four atoms attached to them lie in a plane, with bond angles of approximately 120 ° . A double bond consists of one sigma bond formed by overlap of sp2 hybrid orbitals and one pi bond formed by overlap of parallel 2 P orbitals Here is a chart containing the systemic name for the first twenty straight chain alkenes. Name| Molecular formula| Ethene| C2H4| Propene| C3H6| Butene| C4H8| Pentene| C5H10| Hexene| C6H12| Heptene| C7H14| Octene| C8H16| Nonene| C9H18| Decene| C10H20| Undecene| C11H22| Dodecene| C12H24| Tridecene| C13H26| Tetradecene| C14H28| Pentadecene| C15H30| Hexadecene| C16H32| Heptadecene| C17H34| Octadecene| C18H36| Nonadecene| C19H38|Eicosene| C20H40| Did you notice how there is no methene? Because it is impossible for a Carbon to have a double bond with nothing. The Basic Rules: A. For straight chain alkenes, it is the same basic rules as nomenclature of alkanes except change the suffix to â€Å"-ene. † i. Find the Longest Carbon Ch ain that Contains the Carbon Carbon double bond. (If you have two ties for longest Carbon chain, and both chains contain a Carbon Carbon double bond, then look for most substituted chain. ) ii. Give the lowest possible number to the Carbon Carbon double bond. 1.Do not need to number cycloalkenes because it is understood that the double bond is in the one position. 2. Alkenes that have the same molecular formula but the location of the doble bonds are different means they are constitutional isomers. 3. Functional Groups with higher priority: iii. Add substituents and their position to the alkene as prefixes. Of course remember to give the lowest numbers possible. And remember to name them in alphabetical order when writting them. iv. Next is identifying stereoisomers. when there are only two non hydrogen attachments to the alkene then use cis and trans to name the molecule.In this diagram this is a cis conformation. It has both the substituents going upward. (This molecule would be c alled (cis) 5-chloro-3-heptene. ) Trans would look like this v. On the other hand if there are 3 or 4 non-hydrogen different atoms attached to the alkene then use the E, Z system. E (entgegen) means the higher priority groups are opposite one another relative to the double bond. Z (zusammen) means the higher priority groups are on the same side relative to the double bond. (You could think of Z as Zame Zide to help memorize it. ) In this example it is E-4-chloro-3-heptene.It is E because the Chlorine and the CH2CH3 are the two higher priorities and they are on opposite sides. vi. A hydroxyl group gets precedence over th double bond. Therefore alkenes containing alchol groups are called alkenols. And the prefix becomes –enol. And this means that now the alcohol gets lowest priority over the alkene. vii. Lastly remember that alkene substituents are called alkenyl. Suffix –enyl. B. For common names i. remove the -ane suffix and add -ylene. There are a couple of unique one s like ethenyl's common name is vinyl and 2-propenyl's common name is allyl.