Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Kodak and Fujifilm Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Kodak and Fujifilm - Essay ExampleThe company has been thudding in responding to the digital revolution. George Eastman started commercial production of dry plates as early as 1888 in saucily York (Schaede, 2008). He formed Eastman Company in 1888 and later transformed it to Eastman Kodak in 1892. The first brownie television photographic camera was introduced in 1900 while the first motion picture film was launched in 1929. The first digital camera was introduced in 1975 with the capability of capturing black and white images with a resolution of 10,000 pixels. Eastman Kodak ventured in the video market in 1984 with the Kodavision series 2000 8mm video system. In 2003, Kodak Easyshare bell ringerer dock 6000 was launched to produce borderless 4 by 6 butt against prints. In 2011, the company began shopping its 1,000 digital-imaging patents and experienced a downgrading of its debt ratings. In January 2012, the company announced plans to realign its ancestry operations in order to cut costs but later in the month it fill bankruptcy protection in order to boost cash position and stay in operations. The boodle and gross revenue of Eastman Kodak have been eroding since 1990s due to foreign competition from Fujifilm. Eastman Kodak core problem is dual-lane in to three logical argument segments that include digital and filming systems for consumers, professionals and entertainment industry (Schaede, 2008). The second logical argument segment is the commercial imaging group that consists of aerial, graphic, micrographic, inkjet printers, scanners and digital printing equipments that target industrial, banking and insurance markets. The third business segment is health imaging that caters for health check films, processing equipments and chemicals (Schaede, 2008). On the other hand, Fuji Photo sprout Ltd was founded in 1934 and is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. Fuji Film prides itself of continuous technological innovations since the company spends almost 7 portion of its sales towards research and development activities. Fuji Photo Film was established as part of the giving medication plans of establishing a local photographic film industry. Ashigara factory began operations immediately by producing photographic print papers, dry plates and photosensitive materials. The company entered the US market in 1965 and diversified to Europe the following grade (Schaede, 2008). In 1983, Fuji acquired 51 percent of the shareholding of Chiyoda medical company in order to boost its medical photography and imaging business segment. In the 1990s, the company made several acquisitions and entered markets such as Hong-Kong, china and German. In 2003, an Enovation Graphic system was established in the US and acquired Arch Chemical, Inc currently known as the Fujifilm Electronics materials Co, Ltd. The company acquired Avecia inkjet limited and Problem solving concepts, Inc in order to boost imaging information systems business segment in the US. The company entered in Dubai in 2010 and also acquired endoscopy products in Turkey to boost its sales promotions. FujiFilm launched light production disguise system for on-demand printing in 2012. Fujifilm core business is divided in to three business segments that include imaging solutions, information solutions and documents solutions. Imaging solutions segment consists of electronic imaging, color films, color chemicals and papers, labs and photofinishing equipments. Information solutions business segments consist of medical systems, graphic systems, industrial products, optical devices and recording media (Schaede, 2008). The document

Monday, April 29, 2019

Caffeine psychostimulants Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Caffeine psychostimulants - Essay ExampleOne of the advantages of caffein lies in its ability to sustain the release of dopamine in the be leading to hyperactivity. The hyperactivity referred to in this case is not the activity piece in hyperactivity disorder, but rather positive activity. The dopamine released activates the part of the brain associated with alertness and attention, as swell up as problem solving and pleasure (Russel, 2008). Because of this effect of caffeine, the body becomes hypersensitive to the environment around it and storage area of the body needs. In this case, the capabilities of the brain are improved and increases as it acts as a stimulant each thanks to the activation of dopamine. The boost increases circulation around the body including the brain, where the brain increases even a larger come in of caffeine stimulation than the heart. It is through this dose of caffeine that it improves the mood of the caffeine consumer and allows one to think wit h heighten precision and clarity (Gargulinski, 2011).In addition, caffeine contains numerous antioxidants that are crucial for the wellbeing of the human body in that they block the action of free radicals. The presence of these antioxidants in caffeine reduces the chances of developing cancer in a person, and in cases of cancer, its onset is usually delayed considerably. In the absence of caffeine, one remains allergic to cancer due to free radicals that increase cell death and accumulation of the dead cells (Thompson and Keene, 2004). Other than this, caffeine is beneficial since it plays a crucial role in increasing the longevity of human life. In this case, change magnitude consumption of caffeine increases the human lifespan, which is also caused by the antioxidants fond in caffeine. In addition, the risk of contract Parkinsons disease is reduced, especially when consumed for extended periods.One other advantage of consuming

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Learning model 5 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Learning model 5 - Assignment ExampleNearly all moves made by the managers will have political implications. Nearly all barriers to effective to effective performance of agency started come out of the closet as reforms hence it is important for managers to consider this political history. The political cycles, especially the calendar of election bewitch compositional changes. Behn asserts that globe managers seeking change in their organizations make progress often only by dint of what is called groping along. This is because of political constraints or because of other considerations (pp. 413). Behn argues that, change in public organizations often is not so much a matter of rational planning in which a manager considers all courses f action and then settles on a strategy that guides his or her future actions. In this respect, Aristigueta et al. (2012, pp. 413) says that instead, a sound manager has a very good sense of his objectives but lacks a precise idea of realizing them . motiveless carried out a study in twenty six public and nonprofit organizations in which organization had become a way of life. According to the findings of Light, these organizations followed many of the same prescriptions of for organizational change including paying aid to political change (Aristigueta et al., 2012, pp. 413).The recommendations given by Light for creating the freedom to imagine were democratize which required the locomote from centralized rule to a more participatory style, prime organizations among others. Denhardt and Denhardt found that many in public organizations are risk averse. These public organizations like their business organizations counterparts are place a high honour on not rocking the boat (Aristigueta et al., 2012, pp. 413). The mangers who are interested in encouraging innovation must embrace special measures to encourage the employees to value change and even to take risks. Denhardt and Denhardt say that both change and innovations should be valued in order to realize success (Aristigueta et al., 2012, pp. 414). Borins reviewed a sample of semifinalists applications for the Ford Foundations-Kennedy School of authorities state and local goernment innovation awards. According to the findings of Borins, a large portion of the innovation that had occurred was collectable to the initiation by public servants at the middle management level or on the forward line. It is on this basis that Aristigueta et al. (2012, pp. 414) claim that Borins argued that as the public organizations devolved authority and responsibility through the organization, they are in all likelihood to experience even more innovation. Borins wrote, Politicians initiate in times of crisis, agency head when they take over the reins or in an organizational change context and middle-level and frontline public servants develop innovative responses as needed to solve internal problems or take advantage of opportunities (Aristigueta et al., 2012, pp. 414). 2. Describe four key insights for work with the media? Under what condition/situation is it most useful to use (a) television, (b) print, (c) on-line, (d) radio, and (e) press conferences? A significant and increase part of success of any particular public organization will depend on the potency of its members in working with others. They include the citizens, other public agencies, the governing body, private and nonprofit groups and associations and the media

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Impact of developing technology on the retail industry Research Paper

Impact of exploitation technology on the retail industry - Research Paper ExampleThe decoct is on up(p) competitiveness and taking advantage of the avail equal opportunities. The need for shops is increasingly becoming obsolete with the changing technological trends. Online systems work led to the creation of virtual shops that are slowly replacing the convectional shopping centers. This trend is pass judgment to increase with the future predicting a possible phase off for shops. This revolution has been experienced in several(prenominal) sectors, Apple was one of the corporations that championed this paradigm shift through online marketing and use of its applications. Many record shops have been closed in the near past because of the changing patterns in buying of movies and music as initiated by Apple. Purchase of music online has become so prevalent not only in the United States and in Canada but in other countries including the under true countries. This trend is gaining po pularity in the sale of books, Amazon, eBay among others continue to expand for the thingummy and efficiency that they give to their customers. Competition has sharpend advancement across the retail markets worldwide. Technology has been the central focus for many retail outlets. Despite the fact that most of the retailers are still on profit, their margins continue to decline. This has prompted a game change that has helped them keep ahead of competition. Home Depot, a company that deals with selling household items has been able to adopt technological changes. The company developed a mobile application that not only did it enhance the customer experience but also facilitated the associates in taking inventory. The company and its customers have received this scheme with a lot of optimism. Competitiveness has also facilitated research in strategies that are predicted to enhance sales as swell up as increase the customer base. The pressure from competition exit force the optimi zation of the return chain in rig to provide a better customer experience as well as remain on a profit-making trend. The number of physical stores is expected to dramatically reduce. The so called brick and howitzer establishments are likely to remain but technological change has to be coupled with the change. However, the change will come with a drastic drop-off in these outlets. Another phenomenon expected to be coupled with the reduction in the number of stores is the reduction in their sizes. The main reason for this is the increased business online capable of enhancing the decisions to lease, facilitating marketing plans and transforming the physical layout. With the reduction of the physical locations and the size of the premises, diversification is of great essence (Sohl, 2012).. The retail market stooge divert its activities online as well as diversifying to the other areas of the product supply chain. In addition, they can depart to offering services. Technology wil l facilitate the retailers to refocus on customer loyalty while enhancing impropriety with the customers. Loyal customers will keep on buying fro the same retailer irrespective of the change. However, in order to facilitate their shopping experience it is obligatory that they keep abreast with change, even loyal customers deserve prime(a) and efficient services. Despite being top on the retail of household items, Home Depot developed a mobil

Friday, April 26, 2019

Ethics Article Analysis Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Ethics Article Analysis - Research Paper ExampleThese compute of ethics assistance to ensure that the individuals who control the partys infrastructure are recognizing their duties when it comes to pecuniary decision making. Moreover these ethics greatly help in helping these individuals to take proper pecuniary decisions in the business. Within a go with a jurisprudence of ethics is developed to which every individual of the company has to abide. However in some situations the code of ethics is not followed by the newer employees and they tend to break the codes. This in turn violates the code of ethics and the financial decisions become distorted. An example can be cited here about the senior financial officers who are already working in the company. These financial officers know that the information of the company should be unplowed confidential whereas if a new financial officer comes and he is unaware of the fact he susceptibility the leak the information out. And becau se of this leakage the financial decisions now taken would be not that effective. Similarly the code of ethics also mandates it on the employees that they do not use the resources of the company inefficiently. However the company cannot notice all the minute activities of these employees and in order to abide by the code of ethics a company would be forced to involve more finances towards the check and balance of employees. While making financial decisions in compliance with the ethics it is necessary to see that the individuals who are involved do not require any personal or professional relationship with the issue. This can affect the financial decision making as the individuals who would have personal gains would tend to distort important information about the company.Financial Executives transnational is a company which abides by the code of ethics. The company involves these ethics in all the financial processes that it implements. The company strictly follows these code of ethics and makes sure that all the positive cash flow is achieved after

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Comparative Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

comparative degree Analysis - Essay ExamplePhilosophers like Peter Singer have adopted utilitarian viewpoints in order to justify a strongly favorable position to animal liberation and a honour for the environment. After all, it was Jeremy Bentham, John Stewart Mills family friend, who said of animals, the question is not can they reason, and not can they talk but can they suffer?John Stewart Mills piece constitution discusses the extent to which human beings can listen to and derive moral truths from constitution alone, and whether it is indeed a legitimate source for such information. Mill looks critically at claims made by philosophers throughout time and blank space that human action must conform to some underlying Law, a supreme ruler and crowning(prenominal) standard. He ultimately concludes that acting in accordance with any just natural laws is a material impossibility and therefore the concept itself an absurdity. The word nature, whatever it mode, does not confer an y prescriptive principle, whether it is endorsement or disapproval. Nature simply is what is, and not what ought to be. Nature, Mill writes, cannot be a proper stumper for us to imitate. Either it is right that we should kill because nature kills torture because nature tortures ruin and devastate because nature does the like or we ought not to consider what nature does, but what it is good to do (Mill, 2007).This passage encapsulates maybe what is most significant about Mills essay. Holmes Rolston, in earth Valuing the Natural Environment broaches this aforementioned(prenominal) topic by quoting Barry Commoners third law of ecology, which says Nature knows best (Rolston, Humans Valuing the Natural Environment, 1989, p. 32). This is the inversion of Mills thought that nature has no place in maneuver human action. It states simply because human beings value nature in some sense such means they ought to follow nature accordingly. Rolston

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Discuss the role of innovation management in relation to strategic, Essay

Discuss the role of cosmos management in relation back to strategic, international marketing and corporate objectives - Essay ExampleWhile innovation contributes to economic performance, corporate engagement and the overall quality of life, there are many social and economic benefits of innovation, hence, an organizational returns depend from the suspend managing of risks and complexities connected with the innovation. The following paper will discuss innovation in terms of primary and underpin activities and innovative management contribution will be illustrated in terms of strategic objectives. These objectives will be argued through the creation of private-enterprise(a) advantage. Porters generic strategies and his value chain will be also discussed. The paper will also highlight the importance of innovation as the source of competitive advantage and through the viewpoint of international business. Position and Paradigm innovations and innovation space will be discussed in o rder to address issues of strategic direction.International integration that came from the interchange of gentlemans gentleman views, ideas, products and other aspects ofworld culture has given modern businesses more opportunities to search and expand their activities in new locations and search for fit suppliers. However, the propriety of these suppliers made companies think about new approaches for cooperation. Thus, technical competence and innovativeness have become undeniable parameters to obtain competitive advantage of these companies over others (Upadhyay & Baglieri, 2012). The independent suppliers innovate if they obtain cost-benefit ratio, however, the dependent suppliers need innovation more in order to satisfy customers. Here innovative approach is used even if they break no long-term return. This is because innovation will allow attaining customers in the long-term perspective and would allow family to obtain an advantage in the future. Upadhyay and Baglieri (2012 ) consider that it is more

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Nonverbal communication in Crash Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Non oral communication in Crash - Term Paper ExampleFrom the plastic film, we are sufficient to clearly see the communication difference that exists between people of different cultures (Knapp). The lives of people from diverse cultures in the movie seem to be at stake due to inaccurate intuition and ineffective verbal communication. This movie portrays behind the scenes that all humans are good in nature and if they add a little of the good aspects of communication then most of the problems in the society are likely to be solved (Crash. Dir. Robert Lantos).It is clear that the movie under review and analysis is the movie Crash by capital of Minnesota Haggis and the concept under analysis is nonverbal communication and their general impacts in the society. Effective communication is real important not only to the society but also in an individuals lifespan for the sake of their personal, professional and civic interactions and betterment. Therefore, it is wise to always create or look for room to develop and learn so that we are better communicators (Wood). From the movie, we are qualified to see this fact openly manifested and goes pass on to show us the consequences of not being sufficient to communicate effectively (Crash. Dir. Robert Lantos). Through the characters of the movie, we are able to see the impacts of communication to ourselves. To other people or the public, organization and most importantly we are able to pinpoint the drawbacks of the inability to perform effective intercultural communication as witnessed in most of the movie characters.The movie shows us the clash that exists between the law and ethics due to mishap in communication (Wood). It is good for the police or corps to pull the vehicle over yet against ethics to harass and plague the people in the vehicle. This has come about because of the poor communication exhibited by the police a perception that sets prototypes about some members of the society hence a motivation to ac t differently in manipulation issues. Therefore the

Strategic management (GAZPROM) Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Strategic management (GAZPROM) - Assignment ExampleGazprom products do not only make out high school demand in Russia but also in foreign countries. Major factors that have contributed to the high demand of the company products imply increased household income in Russia and improved marketing strategies adopted by the company. Based on the prodigious tot of employees who have appropriate skills, the company has adequate resources that has enabled it to in effect compete with its main rivals that include Novatek, Northgas, Transneft, Russneft, TNK-BP and Novatek and Rosneft among others. The primary aspects that Gazprom should emulate in its strategic planning include expanding financial apportioning that is focused at exploring oil reserves in developing countries as well as specialization strategies. In this way, the company will not only increase shareholders returns but also it will effectively face off its competitors in the oil industry. To ensure that adequate control of its operations, Gazprom should involve all the stakeholders that include the shareholders, employees, Russian goernment and the marketers. Introduction A strategic compendium of an organization is carried out to examine the non-homogeneous ways through which a firm can achieve a competitive advantage over its competitors in the market. According to Lorenzen (2006) strategic planning is a rhythmic procedure that gives managers a clear see of the firms internal as well as the external environment. Consequently, managers get to a position where the organizations strengths and weaknesses are study and solutions put into effect to counter the weaknesses that detriment the operations of their businesses. This paper seeks to discuss the environment analysis, structuring and an organization analysis as well as strategic plan of Gazprom, a Russian based company specializing in extraction of natural gas. Environmental analysis Industry analysis Having been established in 1989, Gazprom ha s various output subsidiaries that include Urengony, Nadvm, Yamburg and Novabrsk. With its major production fields being Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Nadym-Pur-Taz region, the company has importantly led to an refinement of natural oil industry. Due to lack of barriers to enter Russian oil industry, the industry has attracted large number of firms making Russia to be the largest oil producer globally. For example, in 2009 the country produced 494.2 million tons (Edward and Robert, 2009). Key competitors in the Russian oil industry include Surgutneftegaz, Lukoil, Rosneft, Gazprom, Northgas, Transneft, Russneft, TNK-BP and Novatek. Rosneft controls the biggest market share followed by Lukoil, TNK-BP, Surgutneftegaz and Gazprom. The major customers of the Gazprom come from house servant users. Other customers are based in Europe, CIS countries as well Baltic States (Aarentsen, 2003). Based on the large volume of oil the European countries and other foreign states demands from R ussia they have attained a power that significantly controls oil prices at the international market. In order to compete with its rivals, Gazprom has embarked on diversifying its operations to include transmission, affect of gases as well as marketing and distribution of gases. Other activities that the company has adopted include hangout of the Unified Gas Supply System and power generation (Fahey and

Monday, April 22, 2019

The role of meta-cognition in teaching Mathematics to the Essay

The role of meta-cognition in dogma Mathematics to the International Baccalaureate principal(a) Year Program learners - Essay ExampleIt is for this richness that mathematics holds in our everyday life that the approach towards the teaching of mathematics in school must be done with so much circumspection. Because mathematics is part of our everyday life, it must be taught in such a way that students will adopt concepts through relational learning rather than though rote learning. According to Fox (2009), relational learning has taken place when teachers realize that learning isnt just an academic exercise designed to score individuals on their ability to regurgitate information. Rather, it is a lifelong process of understanding truth, gaining wisdom, and making better life decisions and therefore approaches teaching with methods that are interactive and practical. This is curiously important to ensure at the basic level such as the International Baccalaureate Primary Years. This is because at the primary level, students understanding of what they learn is dependent upon relating ideas to their testify experience (Junior Achievement Michiana, 2007). One educational concept that plays major role when talking about relational or practical learning of mathematics is meta-cognition. Key words Cognition, Metacognition. The term Cognition and Metacognition Cherry (2011) defines cognition as the mental processes involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension, including thinking, knowing, remembering, judging and line of work-solving. Metacognition refers to ones knowledge concerning ones witness cognitive processes or anything related to them, e.g. the learning-of relevant properties of information or data.(Flavell, 1976, p. 232). This means that Metacognitive knowledge discharge be described as the knowledge, awareness, and deeper understanding of ones own cognitive processes and products (Flavell 1976). Metacognitive skills can be seen as the voluntary cont rol people have over their own cognitive processes (Brown 1987). This transformation suggests changes both in curricular content and instructional style. It involves renewed effort to commission on Seeking solutions, not just memorizing procedures Exploring patterns, not just memorizing formulas Formulating conjectures, not just doing exercises. As teaching begins to reflect these emphases, students will have opportunities to study as an exploratory, dynamic, evolving discipline rather than as a rigid, absolute, closed in(p) body of laws to be memorized. For instance in Mathematics When we solve the sum or a problem we are using Cognition, that is we are forced to think of different strategies to solve the problem and Metacognition is when we ascertain the answer, maybe we could scrutinize each and every alternative in a multiple-choice task ahead deciding which is the best one. According to Lucangeli et al (1995), since Flavell introduced the concept of metacognition in 1976 , most authors agree that the construct can be differentiated into a knowledge and skills component. It has long been assumed that metacognitionthinking about ones own thoughtsis a uniquely human ability. Yet a decade of research suggests that, like humans, other animals can differentiate between what they know and what they do not know. They opt out of difficult trials they repeal tests they are unlikely to answer correctly and they make riskier bets when their memories are accurate than they do when their memori

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Santa Fe Grill Restaurant Survey Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Santa Fe grillroom Restaurant Survey - Essay ExampleThe mean values for X22 and X32 ar 4.82963 and 0.348148148 respectively. To determine if the cardinal mean are significantly divergent with an equal variance, a t-statistical analysis is under engrossn. The iodine tail results give a t-critical of 1.647649 piece of music the two tails gives a t-critical result of 1.964318. However passing game by the one tail, the t-critical is 1.647649 compared with a significance level of 0.00, we accept the null hypothesis that the two mean are statistically significant. According to the book page 498, this analysis was supposed to compare the level of rejoicing between male and distaff-considering the mean. However, from the results there is no substantial support for the null hypothesis to ascertain that the two means are equal, and hence we conclude that male customers are significantly more satisfied than female customers.The mean values of X21, X22 and X23 are 4.82963, 4.464198 and 3.785185. The null hypothesis is to test if the mean of the variables are significantly different. The p-value=3.59 while the significant level =o.05 therefore we accept the null hypothesis that the mean of the variables are significantly different (p-value0.05). That is, the mean perceptions of males between the two restaurants do not differ significantly on satisfaction or likelihood of returning.Most customers at the restaurant do not like to party as this is revealed by 14 out of 450 strongly agreed to like partying. However, it is worth noting that some customers are influenced by friends originally deciding on what to take while reasonable prices also influences the customers decision to take a meal at the restaurant. Among the respondents, at least half agreed that attractive interior and polished food are some of the driving factors that they consider before entering a restaurant. This is something that Santa Fe Grill Restaurant has to contend with if it wants to maximize its profits and revenues. According to the frequency

Saturday, April 20, 2019

The impact of employee participation in decision making on job Research Proposal

The electric shock of employee participation in decision making on military control satisfaction - Research Proposal typeIn the last section, the questionnaire for the primary survey is given.The dependent variable is job satisfaction. It is defined as the positive feeling or emotion resulting from the appraisal of an employee about how much his needs are fulfilled from the commit work role and place( Wagner,1994Bhatti and Qureshi,2007 etc). Hence, job satisfaction results from many factors want the nature of responsibilities assigned to the employee, commensurateness in the midst of life and work to the employee, autonomy for the job , affection orientation towards the organization where the employee is working, position of colleagues etc. Therefore, job satisfaction is measured in terms of two major indicators in this study, the job functionality and organizational check over following many studies like Verma (1995), Wagner (1994), Scott etal(2003),Bhatti and Qureshi(2007) etc. Job functionality includes questions on job responsibilities, job life balance and job autonomy.Organizational fit includes questions on trust in the organization, trust in other employees adjudge from colleagues and authorities, and motivation for work. All these questions are on a scale 0 to 4..Employee participation is defined as sharing of influence among persons who are otherwise hierarchically unequal (Bhatti and Qureshi, 2007, p3) . It includes involving both managers and their subordinates in decision-making, information treat and problem solving processes as well as making a balance between the involvements of both. Hence, the attitude of management and influence of employees at workplace are two important indicators of employee participation. Therefore, employee participation is measured in terms of these two indicators attitudes to current job and influence at workplace. The attitudes to current job include questions like performance and attitude of management as well as employee involvement

Friday, April 19, 2019

Advertising Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 4

Advertising - Essay ExampleAn publicizing has three chief types of copy that is, the headline, body copy, and slogans (Bovee et al, 2007).The headline is the most significant and is usually positioned at the abstract in broad letters. This is because 80% of readers read the headlines only (Bovee et al, 2007). A typical American comes across more than than 500 adverts daily (Fowles, 2007). Therefore, copywriters must acquire the aptitude to appeal to reason, that is Logos, since the headlines must begin with pieces of evidence, and be adequate to draw conclusions from the evidence in the headline.The headline must have Ethical appeal, Ethos. This is a key agent for consideration in an advertisement as it examines the integrity of the advertisement. The headline must depict respect to races, pietism and the society itself therefore a copywriter must consider Ethos when designing the headline. It brings the demand for affiliation (Fowles, 2007). Individuals need the judgment of friendship thus copywriters ensure people feel that they need a product to be accredited in the society.The headline must have pathos, which is the appeal to emotions. This is the need to aggress (Fowles, 2007). When a reader reads an advertisement with a headline that assures to make them even with their foes, they fall for the product.The body copy is the second main cistron of an advertisement, and is graphical since too many words bore the readers and too little words confuse readers (Bovee, 2007). They are catchy, colourful and complement the headline. The body of the advertisement must appeal to reason (Logos) that is, the reader must hatch the visit he/she saw because it has to be reasonable. This is the requirement for aesthetic sensations, like pictures of landscapes and art (Fowles, 2007).The graphic picture must be ethical that is the argument appeal Ethos. Pictures that are disturbing or those that makes the populace disquieting should be shunned. These pictures ev oke the feeling of

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Operation Strategy w3 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Operation Strategy w3 - Essay ExampleThe difficulty is the work marketing arises because there is an absence of any physical product in the business. The clients demand vary from one individual to another and because of this reason inspection and repairs have to be modified in wander to serve each client. There are four basic process strategies that are expound as follows -The scheme focuses on the product as the name suggests and it works towards the betterment of product and service quality (van de ven, 1992). The low level of standardization is used while the product designed is generic in nature.This strategy requires the division of a process into various steps and these steps are taken singly in order to minimize the possibility of an error (van de ven, 1992). The assembly line manufacturing is a common instance.The strategy focuses on designing a specific product for a client so that his or her take can be fulfilled optimally (van de ven, 1992). The customer satisfacti on is the ultimate concern of this approach.The example includes the equip shop that is vending professional suiting for both males and females. The concept is to take a specific order in the light of purchasers buying power and other aspects. The idea is to maximize customer satisfaction.Reimann, M., Schilke, O., & Thomas, J. (2010). Customer relationship management and firm performance the mediating role of business strategy. Journal of the Academy of merchandising Science 38 (3) ,

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Products and Services Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Products and Services - essay ExampleChina for instance has a long list of turbocharger manufacturers but according to research studies, at that place is still a room for competition. Target markets are U.S. suppliers like Honeywell International, Inc., Borgwagner, Inc, Mitsubishi Corp, IHI of Japan and other car devising companies worldwide. jibe to a news show of Bloomberg on July 27, 2010, the market for turbo charger auto protrude is fairly conservative, and the solicit for turbochargers for cars grow from 50 percent to a range from 28 million and 30 million units by 2015, with a value of 4 billion euros ($5.2 billion) to 5 billion euros because of the emission rules and fuel savings (Central turbos, com. Aug. 10, 2010). This news further cited that car makers are looking for suppliers of turbochargers and are willing to go into a joint sham with suppliers. Distribution system Getting this product into the market requires statistical distribution, which could be direct or indirect, and a multi- alley system. According to Gerth, David, an author who compiled spacey nones on marketing distribution, a distribution system is a set of dependent organizations that help make the product available to consumers or for further use in other business. roughly companies completely develop an partnership with its distribution channel because of the nature of its products. A channel of distribution and an alliance is needed by the turbo charger because they will per signifier a function here which could not be eliminated like integrating the turbo charger into the performance system of the car. It only requires a short channel length because the nature of turbocharger does not involve frequent purchases, and the product entails concentration. . For this reason, the manufacturer and supplier need to have a harmonious relationship that is called for. An indirect distribution is recommended in this kind of product since the company will not sell directly to the consumers and customers. This is a common practice of distribution when a product is in an fabrication line, and being used to supply manufacturers (Tutors,net). Under this arrangement, the company will get an intermediary to his distribution chain. These intermediaries do responsibility of the product and makes sure that it reaches the customer. Conversely, direct distribution is the process of selling goods directly to consumers. Since the product is a car part, it will form part of the car package that will be sold to customer. A multi channel system of distribution is not appropriate for marketing the turbo charger as the product is not displayed in grocery or supermarket stores. A multiple channel system is commonly used when on that point are more than one distribution design or product brands. Channel members The turbocharger auto part is a type of product that requires a dependent channel arrangement because in this form of setup, channel members are bound together to wor k on a common goal (tutors.net), such that they form a stable relationship. This arrangement is also referred to as a Horizontal Marketing Arrangement wherein ii or more companies join together to follow a marketing opportunity (Gerth, David).For example, the XYZ company workings together with Toyota Motors to produce a turbocharged car to be sold to customers. It does not need a multi-channel distribution to reach customers. Another approach of channel

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

OHMs prac report Essay Example for Free

OHMs prac report analyseIntroduction OHMS Law states that the menstruation passing through a conductor between two points is now proportional to the potential difference (i. e. voltage drop or voltage) across the two points, and inversely proportional to the fortress between them. The mathematical equation that describes this relationship is Independent Variable changing the resistance (OHMS) hooklike Variable The current (A) is decreased because of the increasing resistivitys. Constant The voltage is kept constant but is changed at the end of each test to make the investigation more accurate. Materials Method 1. Collect materials listed in preceding(prenominal) diagram 2. Set up apparatus shown above 3. Set the voltmeter to 1 volts and place the lead in the 5 OHMs resistor 4. Turn to the Power Pack and record the reading on the ammeter 5. Repeat measurement 3 and 4 2 more times. 6. Change the volts to 3,5,7,9,11,13 and 15, remembering to only record with the 5 OHMs resis tor. 7. embark the results victimization the 5 OHM resistor 8. Repeat steps 4 7 but instead of using the 5 OHMs resistor, use 10 OHMs, 18 OHMs and 56OHMs resistors 9. Clean up all equipment and analyze the results ResultsCurrent (A) Volts 5 OHMs 10 OHMs 18 OHMs 56 OHMs 1It can be seen from the chart that as the volts increase and so did the resistors, the current was recorded lower that the previous.The highest current recorded was, 2. 557amps with a resistance of 5 OHMs and a voltage of 15 volts. The lowest current recorded was, 0. 017amps with a resistance of 56 OHMs and a voltage of 1. This shows that as the resistors increased the current was weaker, than of a low resistor at the alike(p) voltage. Using the Formula and rearranging the equation so R is the average value for the Resistor can be lay down. The Formula now would be . The middling resistor value for The 5 OHMs resistor = 5. 857, The 10 OHMs resistor = 10. 340, the 18 OHMs Resistor = 18. 038 and the 56 OHMs resis tor = 56.238. Discussion Systematic errors The resistor not calibrated to the exact value displayed Ammeter not calibrated flop Voltage on battery pack not correctly calibrated properly Random errors going away the resistors on to long causing the resistors to over heat and decrease the resistance. Loss of resistance to the resistors due to exhaust and tare on the resistors over a long period of time. Damaged equipment. Humidity and room temperature Improvements in that respect are some possible improvements that could be made to improve the results and practical experiment.The Equipment should be checked foregoing to the practical to reduce errors during the experiment. Also introducing more accurate results by recording the results ten times, instead of five, and belong out the average. Use digital ammeters to measure the current. Compare the results to other practicals that were conducted and compare views and data. The Results It can be seen from the Graph that as the volts increased and so did the resistors, the current was recorded lower that the previous. The highest current recorded was, 2. 557amps with a resistance of 5 OHMs and a voltage of 15 volts.The lowest current recorded was, 0. 017amps with a resistance of 56 OHMs and a voltage of 1. This shows that as the resistors increased the current was weaker, than of a low resistor at the same voltage. Conclusion The Hypothesis is correct, as the volts and the resistance was increased, the current decreased. Show take in only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Electricity and Magnetism section.

IT Management Essay Example for Free

IT Management EssayDatabase instruction is an important aspect of any mannerrn presidential term given the massive growth of selective information volumes as a result of regulations on information storage as considerably as the increase in transactions and communication channels. This paper presents issues arising form the task of managing data through its lifecycle specifically for companies based on PeopleSoft, SAP, Siebel, CRM, Oracle E- disdain suite, supplier relationship management (SRM) or ERP applications which are increasingly being affected by expanding data volumes within them.The article brings into perspective, ILM which seeks to optimize on data by employing buttes, policies tools and practices essential in linking the informations business value with the most price effective and countenance IT systems from its conception to the beat its disposed. mend the current mathematical processes of delineate, managing and storing data escape emphasis on its ma nagement, ILM provides a solution for effectively managing organization data applications.It is overbearing to mark on the now prevalent decline in business agility as a result of problems with data volumes so as to keep data management cost mound by taking an attempt approach in managing data as records. ILM set ups this. The findings that 56 percent lack interest in implementing ILM strategies or that they do non know of any ILM efforts within their organizations is biased considering that the enterprise approach is a relatively new approach to organizational information management.It is the current data systems that hold failed as they only allow firms to handle problems as they occur and not that firms are reactive or else undisciplined about their data challenges. The finding that most firms either do not know or allocate minimal ILM strategy budgets ought to have outlined a parallel study of efforts made in alternative data management approaches.ILM introduces a cohesive strategy for the management of information across the organization which is exactly what is needed in modern business environments. Although ILM is promising, the author ought to have compared the findings with firms preference for alternative systems or even priorities as tumefy as its blend in with the current applied science levels. The study also does not highlight the relative costs of implementing ILM with respect to the firms profit margins while outlining the effectuation levels for ILM.However, ILM is an important strategy for data that need to meet certain legal storage mandates although it does not assess relative cost maintaining such(prenominal) information as opposed to frequency of events requiring this information. While the author addresses the issues of difficulties in determining informations life cycle, he does not address the limitations of legal determinants which could jeopardize the gains from ILM. Nolan, R. McFarlan, W. (2005). Information Technology a nd the Board of Directors construct an IT Governance Committee.Harvard Business Review, 83 (10),In such a digital age as this, it is imperative that any organization invest in a strong politics committee on IT that move oversee the formulation and integration of IT policies into the companys competitive advantage strategy. Warren McFarlan and Richard Nolan detail the fundamentals of establishing and maintaining an IT governance committee. An IT governance committee is paramount in developing a custom framework on which an organizations IT policies are founded thus enabling a firm to avoid applying other companies trump strategies which may not fit into the modern nature business strategy.The authors elaborate on the three differentiate approaches that are essential in guiding any company in building an effective IT governance committee appointing the suitable personnel as well as their chairman assessing how the committee would link to the examine committee and the preparatio n of the committees charter. The first two are particularly more important. freedom is vital for any modern-day committee effectiveness just as the authors recommend the independence of the IT committee.Noting the splendour of the importance of mentorship and expertise, McFarlan and Nolan emphasize on a chairman whos either an IT professional (for strategic mode firms) or has past experience (for factory, turn around and support mode firms) in a undefeated IT-strategy based firm. In all cases, being IT-savvy, understanding an organization and its business ineluctably as well as the systems architecture is paramount in addressing the bigger picture technologys potential to interpolate the outlook of the business economy and this supports the characterization of the modern-day business leaders.In this regard, the authors emphasize on selecting a chairman or at least an IT professional who can successfully balance the short-term needs of the firm with its long-term IT investments. Since distraction by difficulties stifle IT integration, the importance of the committee and especially IT experts is addressed as they understand the important dynamics governing technological advancement both at the board and aged management level and thus can appropriately criticize all in-house entrenched thinking. The current scarceness of such experts explains the reason for the increase in result of IT consultants.The article addresses the current issues relating to accountability to the regulatory and frugal objectives through alignment with the audit department. However, drastic changes characterizing the advancement in IT would necessitate a considerable number of the committee be composed of IT professionals rather the one or a few suggested by McFarlan and Nolan. Gary, S. , Alice, G. Alexis, F. luck Management Guide for Information Technology Systems. Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. National Institute of Standards and Technolo gy fussy Publication 800-30.Gaithersburg, MD. Risk management has become an important aspect of the information technology management system. Gary, Alice and Alexis emphasize on the role of IT-risk management amidst the increasingly growing use of automated information systems aimed at defend organizations information assets from IT based risks. IT risk management is largely a management run as this IT hightail its confirms through focus on the companies mission rather than the IT experts only as the firms capacity to perform its mission is affected by these risks.The guide outlines the practical guidelines and the available cost-effective surety systems essential in protecting the mission information which is an imperative in the modern world. This guide is literary applicable in every angle of every firm as it can be easily expanded or abbreviated to tailor it to fit specific organizational situations. Apart from enabling firms IT departments to be accountable for IT budgets , the guide is also helpful in guiding the accreditation of the IT systems.This guide is an important resource for a wide rage of IT users the non-technical and technical staff as well as the experienced and the non-experienced ones. Therefore this guide does not only provide an overview of IT risk management but also evaluates how such a process would rhyme with the all the phases of the system development lifecycle (SLDC) as well as detailing the obligations of individuals who usually support and apply this process. In this regard, the guide provides a clear methodology for IT risk management as well as its relation to the system accreditation.This is made simpler by the provision of system-based information essential in defining the IT system as well as its operating environment. For such a process, it is important that supporting strong such as the samples for the documentation of the results for risk assessment, as well as samples of a security implementation plan be addressed more keenly as they are essential in change the effectiveness of the guide. It also focuses on modern-day needs such as enabling IT individuals to customize their IT systems to fit into effective control systems.The authors address the importance of assessing the knowledge gap within the organization as relates to process of implementing information technology management systems. Although not related to the topic at hand, the example on electrical power and railroads does address the key idea of being aware of the knowledge gap in the appropriate way so as to make the most out of IT systems opportunities.While it may be authentic that IT technologies cost performance had changed to the magnitude of about 107 in at the time of this study, it is no guarantee that it is sack to evolve at this same as the author suggests given the tremendous growth in technology and educational advancement. The authors focus on cost effectiveness and the ability to do things differently through the transformational opportunities offered by IT integration as with the examples of American Hospital Supplys and American Airlines SABRE. In this regard, they emphasize on the knowledge about ITs associated economics.Strategic implementation and management of IT networks in organizations has made organizations capable of extending their oscilloscope globally to take strategic advantage of IT integration. This is because the authors address specifically the fast changing pace of business operations with regards to assumptions and rules of business competition and this an important resource for modern-day senior management and CEOs who are aerated with the responsibility of diversifying into intangible services that are information based.While its clear that technology is increasingly growing, it implies that the opportunities collectible to IT integration are bound to increase it also implies that companies venturing into IT management can differentiate their services and cost and p roduct features not only for sometime to come as the author puts it but for an indefinite time provided there is follow up.However, the author provides a two lenses approach that provides a holistic approach towards IT integration. However, the authors do not note the likely challenges that the highly dynamic and drastically changing IT infrastructure as control by competition may cost. In this regard, the article emphasize on roles of CIO and CTO.

Monday, April 15, 2019

Universal rules of marketing Essay Example for Free

Universal rules of marketing EssayDescribe any public rules of marketing that might be applied to most products, markets, customers and situations.All marketing activities have one thing in common and that is to give customers a reason to buy the companys product. One of the most important comprehensive rules of marketing is that marketers need to find a way to break out of commodity status to find out customers involve better than competing firms. All organizations both for profit and non-profit require effective planning and a audio marketing strategy to do this effectively. The Internet has shifted the power to customers not marketers. The reason for that is, the customer has access to more(prenominal) information and is now able to do comparison shopping. Marketers often conduct and analyze research to teach the inescapably, opinions, and attitudes of the customers.Marketing strategy helps companies to evaluate the usage of their strengths and capabilities to meet th e needs and requirements of the market. Due to the customers constant new needs and wants, marketing is forced to continuously change and adapt to its dynamic environment. Having the right information is just as important as having the right product.Marketers have learned that by establishing a long-term customer relationship, they hobo increase customer sales and gain important marketing information about their customers. Having a pricy relationship with customers is a great benefit to have, then marketing is people driven and it is all fulfilling the needs of customers, shareholders, partners, society and the organization itself.

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Situation Assessment of Various Response Teams Essay Example for Free

Situation Assessment of distinguishable Response Teams EssaySituation Assessment of Various Response TeamsIntroduction Effective result to incidences obliges an captivate planning approach that is founded on the disaster valuation of the view (Schwartz, 2013). Such a situation obliges a reaction on the planned hint trouble process that is applied to the organization. This is pay offed at ensuring that perilous assets of an organization be safeguarded from probable hazards (Salmon, Stanton, Jenkins Walker, 2011). Before the planning and the murder of the resolution, the mind of the situation provides the requisite data for examination. This data assists in the evaluation of the occasionfulness of the subsisting emergency reaction tactics theatrical roled by the organization. This prior situational estimation entails defining the necessarily and urgencies of the emergency reply tactics that are utilized by the organization. For powerful decision-making, plann ing and control of the whole process, situational management executes a decisive element for application (Comfort, 2004). This management helps in undertaking of every the phases of disaster retort through with(predicate) and through facilitating ease of planning and orchestrating of telling recovery strategies. This memo sets to describe the steps that one would take to canalize the assessment as the starting point. It also discusses the cay succeeder doers in the management of large, multi-agency as easily as multi-jurisdictional reply chopines. Further, it discusses numerous ways of determining triumph of the solvent. In addition, the memo entails an elucidation of how drills and tests that scarce evaluate the key factor outs for response can be designed.Steps That One Would Take To Conduct the atomic number 61 The first step, in undertaking the assessment, is defining objectives followed by footing of reference. In this step, the tax assessor ruminates on th e reasons of the assessment practice. The objectives of the assessment activity, the questions that require answers and the entailed activities are defined. The infallible outcomes from the assessment are specifically determined at this step. The assessor is advised to be realistic as possible when carrying out this activity. As Comfort (2004), gauging the minimum desc abate of entropy that is required to attain the necessary output is vital to this step. The assessor then thinks virtually the end enforcer of the nurture obtained from the assessment and, in this case the senior government officials concerned with the disaster type response. The next step involves choosing the kind of assessment to be applied. There are usually three types of assessment that can be applied namely rapid, detailed and continual assessments (Salmon, Stanton, Jenkins Walker, 2011). Rapid assessment is executed during major(ip) faultings such as after the occurrence of an earthquake. Detailed ass essment is carried out on various make such as after a rapid assessment, on the situation where detailed information is required and when the situation under scrutiny keeps on changing gradually. Continual assessment is done after a detailed assessment has been carried out. According to Schwartz (2013), this kind of assessment involves updating information on the current situation and demanding for the relevant feedback from the involved is vital. The third step is deciding on whether or not to involve break outners in the assessment. At point, an individual decides on whether to undertake the assessment on their own or with partners. Partners may both be internal or remote count oning on the sensitivity of the assessment being carried out and needs of the assessment (Comfort, 2004). When internal partners are involved, their capacities and roles should be considered. Also, their actual roles in the exercise should be defined precisely. Involving external partners call for a jo int assessment that has some benefits. These benefits are improved coordination and cooperation in the planning, businesslike use of resources and reduced assessment fatigue (Jensen, 2011). A joint assessment calls for appropriate divisions of responsibilities as per the agreement of the partners. In the next step in undertaking a detailed review of the secondary information, every assessor is obliged to undertake a comprehensive review of the available secondary information on the theatre of operations of assessment (Comfort, 2004). The information entails the background information, and the information in direct relation to the issues identified in terms of reference (Salmon, Stanton, Jenkins Walker, 2011). It also involves the information pertaining to the sources and type of latest changes. This information helps in grasping the initial root word of the assessment and the related problems that the assessor might experience. The other step is the assembling of information pe rtaining to the ongoing responses of the police squad. At this point, choosing the best method of collecting the actual information pertaining to the performance of the various response teams is vital (Schwartz, 2013). This is so because the correct methodology ensures that only the right information pertaining to the situation is obtained. This endeavor obliges for gathering all the appropriate means in terms of resources, logistics, human and time (Jensen, 2011). In the possession of these resources, all the needed information can be obtained with ease. After compiling, the information pertaining to the assessment activity is presented to the recipients, in this case, the senior government officials. The show must be simple and should present a detailed understanding of the activities of various response teams.The observe victor Factors There are several basic success factors that are evident in response programs. These factors ensure that emergency operations fulfill the proj ected aims and objectives of alleviation, reaction and recovery (Comfort, 2004). The main aim of adventure response is to ensure a rapid and stiff recovery from a security event. In addition, the response gears towards decreasing the impacts inflicted by the threat or disruption to formula functioning of facilities where the incidence has occurred. A dictatorial approach plan executed in line with the standard measures of corporeal security is applied with an aim of mitigating the probability of reoccurrence of the event. One of the crucial success factors, towards managing large, multi-agency and multi-jurisdictional response programs, is inter-agency communion (Salmon, Stanton, Jenkins Walker, 2011). This type of parley is done on the basis of a collective framework. As Jensen (2011) asserts, collaboration among agencies is crucial in countenanceing effective disaster response. For this reason, the colloquy among these agencies should be flexible to endorsement a consiste nt communication framework. This framework ensures that the collaboration between the personal sector and the government is at its best for effective management of national calamities. This happens regardless of the magnitude, geographical emplacement and causation of the disaster. Also, the joint system of information management assists in enhancing exoteric communication by relaying the information pertaining to a disaster accurately and in time to the public (Jensen, 2011). This cross-communication drive ons the meeting of various response team communicators whose aim is to develop, organize and deliver a common message relating to the event. Such meetings still the elimination of voice communication of dissimilar information relating to an event by the government and non-governmental agencies. The purpose of inter-agency communication is not only to facilitate effort coordination of various jurisdictions, but also guarantees joint decision-making framework. The framework i s founded on the goals and aims, mete tactics and plans, public communications, and the primaries during the occurrence of the event (Schwartz, 2013). This aids in improving the efficiency of readiness for a disaster and the response of various agencies. This way, successful response to an event, the recovery from that event and taproom of its reoccurrence is guaranteed. The second key success factor is effective reporting procedures of the disaster event. The procedures, of reporting a disaster event, are vital in enhancing the energy of response actions to the event (Comfort, 2004). An efficacy reporting procedure is grounded on the fundamental facets of effective communications that guarantee to extend to the largest audience possible. The reporting of the disaster event must be fast enough so as to mitigate any probable losses that may emanate from the event (Kellams, 2007). For this reason, utilization of effective reporting networks and procedures which manifest minimum con straints. These procedures are obliged to conform to the emptying policies usually applied when all physical security bounds have been entirely overwhelmed (Kellams, 2007). These policies advocates for adequate communication of the incident, suppression of the destruction compel by the event and mitigation of eminent risks through safeguard crucial assets. The third key success factor is effective management of resources. Effective response programs oblige for effective management of resources. This exercise to begin with starts with the identification of the resources that are available at all levels of jurisdiction (Schwartz, 2013). The identification is followed by classifying, transmitting, tracking and answer of resources. All these activities call for effective management so as to facilitate timely delivery of these resources and prevention of wastage. This way, the preparation, reaction and recovery process of the disaster event is effectively carried out devoid of impedi ments (Comfort, 2004). Resource management should also entail the various agreements among several agencies who form response teams for effective resource mobilization. This way, the effect brought about by the disaster event is minimized, and the recovery strategies become more effective. The fourth basic success factor is enhanced public communication. At this point, crucial media relations should be cultivated in ensuring effective communication of the disaster event to the public (Kellams, 2007). During initial stages of reacting to disaster and recovery operations, the involved teams should are obliged to break communication channel that are capable of reaching the victims with swiftness. In most cases, effective public communication is usually realized through the use of low-price and low-tech networks (Kellams, 2007). This is so because they are believed to be the most effective and are easily accessed by the victims of a disaster event. Some examples of such cheap communic ation take that can be used are megaphones, community radios and the Systems of Public Address.Measuring the Success of the Response A given response to a disaster event is said to be successful only if it achieves its first aims and objectives (Kellams, 2007). In all instances, the primary aim and objective of all response programs are to mitigate the electromotive force damage affiliated with the event on human life and belongings by emphasizing on safety. In determining the success of the response, several variables can be used as discussed below. The first way, of standard the success of the response, is through the analysis of the perspicacity of losses incurred after the event and comparison of it to the recovery depth (Kellam, 2006). The extent of loss is measured through the number of sustained fatal injuries, the minor injuries, and the reported agree deaths. This is followed then by identification of the magnitude of loss affiliated with the event in terms of plaza (Comfort, 2004). This way, it is easier to assess the achievement of the response and recovery attempts put in place by the collaborating multi-agency teams. Effective responses to black events are always geared towards minimizing the impacts of the event and to aid in the realization of the best possible recovery plan. Also, these responses aim at preventing such disasters in the rising. Assessing the initial possibility of the occurrence of the losses incurred compared to the assessment of the future occurrence of such an event is crucial. This is so because, it becomes easier to determine the success of the response (Rodriguez, Quarantelli Dynes, 2006). The second way through which the success of the response is determined is through the evaluation of the level of collaboration between all the stakeholders. In the case of a disaster event, the stakeholders are the public, the government, as well as the response agencies (Comfort, 2004). Successful responses to events depend on the level of collaboration of all the above-mentioned stakeholders. This is so because each of the collaborators must take their part seriously and execute it with utmost articulation for a successful response program. For this reason, there must exist an effective communication channel among the stakeholders (Sadovich, 2007). This ensures that each fulfills their part without intruding into other stakeholders jurisdiction. The stakeholders who have a common picture of the event and who worked tirelessly together throughout the whole response program is an index number of a successful response program (Gardner, 2013). This collaboration can only be guaranteed through effective communication among the stakeholders that in turn ensures effective resource management, sharing of responsibilities and planning of activities. When the above mentioned three activities become effective, the success of the response program is guaranteed. For this reason, establishment of the level of collab oration is an important measure of the success of response programs (Sadovich, 2007). The third measure of the success of the response is an assessment of the time of distraction of the normalcy of the response. As Gardner (2013) asserts, a successful response to a disaster event usually occurs within the shortest time possible to guarantee minimum distraction of the operation of vital facilities during its execution. The minimum disruption is guaranteed through effective communication, better parcelling of tasks among the multi-agency teams and effective allocation of resources. If a response program takes long to be accomplished, it means that there is a problem with one or even more of the three aforementioned perspectives. A prolonged response program may create a lot of disruptions of the unfavorable facilities. To this end, the program may be termed as ineffective and thus unsuccessful. When all aspects of effectuation of the program are well coordinated, there is minimum d isruption of the crucial infrastructure (Gardner, 2013). When this minimum disruption occurs, the response program is said to be successful. For this reason, the magnitude and eon of the disruption of crucial facilities is one of the metrics for assessing the success of a response program.Designing Drills and Tests for Evaluating Key Success Factors The primary use of drills and tests is to evaluate the perilous success factors in the implementation of disaster response program. For this reason, the drills and tests are developed in accordance with the objectives and aims of the response program. First, the evaluation of inter-agency communication during the implementation response program necessitates an examination of the roles and accountabilities of different agencies that are collaborating. For this reason, individual contribution of the agencies must be accounted for during the evaluation of the success of inter-agency collaboration (Gardner, 2013). Secondly, it is a must tha t the communication computer programmes used by different agencies in the process are evaluated. This way, it becomes easier to know different communication platforms that were used by different agencies who were collaborating. The agencies may have used a single platform of communication, or each may have used their independent platform. In most cases for national incidences, the use of a universal platform is encouraged. This is so because it is associated with prominence in managing emergency incidences. To this end, communication platforms are vital ingredients in designing drills and tests. To add on this, the preparedness to disaster is improving because of the use of uniform procedures in response teams reinforced by the application of the universal language. The standardization aspect also emphasizes on the use a set of universal techniques and information systems (Gardner, 2013). The two are developed to boost the operation of entities during the implementation of the resp onse program. In addition, the two aspects serve as a strategic methodology that is used to facilitate effective management of operations during the program. The process of evaluating the efficiency of inter-agency teamwork and communication considerably rest on flexibility of appropriate implementation (Gardner, 2013). This flexibility relies on the progress of a chain of command that the government and non-governmental agencies befool during the management of the occurrence. Evaluation of efficient program response is carried out by assessing the base on which the channels of communication used are oriented (Jensen, 2011). These communication channels should be in line with the evacuation policies and techniques. For this reason, communication as a drill and test of evaluating the basic success factor of the response program is designed to conform to the laid down policies and techniques. The reporting of the disaster event should be done ground on the real time of occurrence. The accuracy in reporting procedure and of the relayed information pertaining to the event is extremely emphasized (Jensen, 2011). In evaluating the success of this factor, we base our information magnitude of the target population of the reporting. For this reason, a critical assessment of communication channels that were utilized during the response and their respective effectiveness in reaching the prospected audience is vital.Conclusion In conclusion, this memo describes the steps that one would take to conduct assessing the performance of several response teams during a disaster event. These steps are definition of objectives followed by terms of references, choosing the type of assessment to be used and deciding on involvement of partners. Other steps are review of the secondary information, collection of information pertaining to the ongoing response and the presentation of the findings as well as recommendations to the officials. Also, the memo discusses some key success fa ctors in managing large, multi-jurisdictional, as well as multi-agency response programs. These factors are universal framework inter-agency communication, efficient reporting and techniques, public communication and effective management of resources. Further, there is a discussion of various measures success of the response programs. These measures are the extent of loss caused by the disaster, the level of collaboration during the program, and the duration of the disruption of normal operation of crucial infrastructures. Further, the last section discusses on how drills and tests, of evaluating key success factors, can be designed. This process, as discussed above, involves analyzing the roles and responsibilities bestowed on various agencies forming the team, and an evaluation response techniques and policies.ReferencesComfort, L. (2004). Coordination in Rapidly Evolving casualty Response Systems The Role of Information. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(3), 295-313. doi10.1177/ 0002764204268987Gardner, S. (2013). Multi-Site calamity Response and Coordination Best Practices. Rxresponse.org. Retrieved 21 January 2015, from http//www.rxresponse.org/news/blog/multi-site-disaster-response-and-coordination-best-practicesJensen, J. (2011). The Current NIMS execution of instrument Behavior of United States Counties. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 8(1). doi10.2202/1547-7355.1815Kellams, C. (2007). NIMS and Homeland Security handle Guides. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 4(1). doi10.2202/1547-7355.1321Rodriguez, H., Quarantelli, E., Dynes, R. (2006). Handbook of disaster research. New York Springer.Sadovich, J. (2007). Review Disaster Resilience An Integrated Approach. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 4(4). doi10.2202/1547-7355.1397Salmon, P., Stanton, N., Jenkins, D., Walker, G. (2011). Coordination during multi-agency emergency response issues and solutions. Disaster Prevention and Manageme nt, 20(2), 140-158. doi10.1108/09653561111126085Schwartz, K. (2013). Testimony before the Senate Committee on Homeland Security Governmental personal business The Boston Marathon Bombings.Source document

Friday, April 12, 2019

Accounting fraud Essay Example for Free

Accounting fraud Es assertAccounting fraud green goddess be defined as knowingly falsifying accounting records in order to increase sales r pointue and net income. Accounting fraud is committed in corporations by means of showing inconclusive information, using funds for illegal purposes or inflate expenses, overstating revenues, understating expenses or overstating the value of incarnate as pin downs. All these activities be entirely un honest. Behaving estimablely depends on the capability to recongnize the estimable issues and to believe on their existence. This ability to respond ethic every last(predicate)y at mildewplace related more to attributes of merged nicety than to attributes of undivided employee Individuals often fail to affirm their example obligations at work and by being subject to worlds temptation fails to stride on their set ethical standards and behave unethically. People especially of todays generation are so a good deal engrossed in their own different criterias of their lives that they almost forget to confine themselves to ethical boundaries that is why ethical purposes are always difficult to make and its foundation is based on several factors however if we talk about the decision by considering moral philosophies of a individual that depends on whether the person is making a work-related decision or in-person-life decision.See more Basic Economic problem of Scarcity EssayA person in the line of descent sector might view of the problem by thinking differently beacause of the international force and under the work pressure. However, the same decision might be unacceptable to him outside the work. The second reason of slew changing moral philosophies could be the corporate culture where they work. Rules and personalities of a dividing line culture person eventually effects on the person and exerts pressure to conform to the firms culture. Edward Hall (1959), described culture as a silent language, and def ines it as that part of mans behavior which he posts for granted, the part he doesnt think about, since he assumes it is universal or regards it as idiosyncratic. Geert Hofstede (1993) defined it as the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes one group or category of people from another. (P.489) A culture followed in corporate or on industrial level is known as Meso- culture and every organisation has their own set agendas regarding ethics because work ethics plays a important role at work place to rein employees to behave ethically and keeping into account the ethical dimensions. In most of the organizations, there are set rules and policies specifically formulated to make ethical environment. eitherorganization has a culture which mainly comes from the side of upper management and the rest of the employees follows the set trends and culture of their own corporate sectors. The culture of the organization varies from organization to organization because of the diffe rent perceptions of the chief executive officers (CEO) and the jury of Directors (BOD). Individuals in practical lives tend to take decisions according to their own moral values and set standards however, in business it changes and is quite the other way round. People get pressurised often and take decisions whatever is percieved as right or wrong in their surroundings and also choose on producing the greatest bene buy the farms with to the lowest degree harm. Individuals cannot simply enforce their personal perspective, though they are responsible for their actions but the idea of middle- management or entry level employee to have the freedom to take decision on their own at the work place is unrealistic.For example, if an employee can attract more customers by giving bribe to both(prenominal)one in the business, his decision would rely on whether complying with fraternity policy or requirements is an important motivation to the individual or not. So for that purpose, according to Drake and Drake (1988), there is a necessity for the development of training programmes to implement corporate values.These programmes must inform the ethical and legal dominions to the employees and show practical examples which can be used as a guidance. (p.111) Thus, the set principles and policies regarding work ethics in an organization and in addition to that the training programs can guide, govern or direct the employees to follow ethics and helps in institutionalizing organizations. According to ethics consultant David Gebler, Most unethical deportment is not done for personal gain, its done to meet performance goals. Mostly people are of the view that individual moral philosophies plays main role for the ethical behaviour in business. Although moral philosophies lettered through family, religion and education are important but it is only one factor which helps in decision making it is not sufficient to prevent ethical misconduct especially in the business sector. Studies show that the reward for meeting performances and the corporate culture are the main drivers in ethical decision making because the companies have a life of their own and the individuals working in the come with are transcended by its corporate culture and with the passage of time, these patterened activities become instituionalized within theorganization.Peer influence also effects to some extent in the decision making employees can be lulled by each other in making unethical decisions or when facing with ethical dilemmas nonetheless, everything still surrounds around the corporate culture and its exact policies for the ethical behaviour because when the policies will be strict, every employee would strive hard for the performance goal. If I fit myself in a situation where I can easily inflate my account on fellowships expenses, I would be swayed by the companys culture. I might not even think of committing any fraud or inflate the expense on companys account, if the com pany is strict in its policies. But at times, it also depends on an individual moral values of a person in taking decision which is transmitted normally from families. According to my vantage point, individual moral development for taking a decision is a secondary factor what drives first instantly to the person to behave ethically is the corporate culture since a company cannot rely on every individual to behave ethically on their own. They cant just stand in front of people and say they want them to have a good attitude and be excited, says Pecos River president Elizabeth Wilson.Taking decision in practical life and in work life differs. People in their work lives are dictated by some targets and goals which are triggered in them by the organisation where they work and that effects on their performance. Similarly, when they take decision in their work lives , they are not driven by their own values, the companys formulated culture effects their decision making. Nevertheless, if a person takes any decision without any bushel or reflecting on the ethical dimensions these sort of misbehaviours are referred to as unethical business practices (eg Garrett et al.,1989 Giacalone and Jurkiewicz, 2003 King, 1986).According to Murphy (1989), moral philosophy should be followed in corporate sectors in the form of corporate creed and ethical code. The former establishes the organisational ethical values whereas the latter is a specific set of guidelines which must be developed in all functional areas of the firm. To conclude, business ethics plays a pivotal role in developing a corporate culture.Although, all the implementation of principles and ethics is a bit difficult procedure but it impacts on the employees in the organisation in higher degree and rein them from involving in unethical activities. It is obvious that in principle individuals are more ethical if a corporation has a written, formal code andless ethical otherwise. (Vitell et al.,1993,p.336). Hence, a ccording to Vitell, the idea of a formal written code for ethics works well in corporate sector. In addition, moral values of an individual which are mainly effected by religion, personal cognitive approach, family, beliefs, education et cetera also plays an important role in preventing the employees in taking any unethical decision, however, it is only a secondary factor for an employee has a performance goal in his mind sequence working and the decision forms according to a corporate culture and the ethics followed in organizations since a company cannot rely on individuals individually to have ethical standards and beliefs. For that purpose , there is a necessity of a corporate culture which work as the main driver to act ethically in a work- place and in situations related to corporate sector.REFERENCESArunchand, C H Ramanathan, Hareesh N. Organizational Culture and Employee Morale A Public Sector Enterprise Experience, Journal of Strategic Human Resource Management2.1 (2013) 1 -8. Mickalowski, Kyle Mickelson, Mark Keltgen, Jaciel. Apples Iphone Launch A Case Study In Effective Marketing The line of business Review, Cambridge9.2(Summer 2008). Retrieved from Proquest Database, viewed 29 September,14Caulkin, S. 2002, close Thinking, Bad Practice, The Observer (7th April), 11 Claver, Enrique Llopis, Juan Gasco, Jose L. International Journal of Value Based Management15.2 (2002) 151-163 Drake, B. H.and E. Drake, (1988), Ethical and legal aspects of managing corporate culture California management review 30 (2), 107- 123 Fritzche, D. J. 1995, Personal Values Potential Keys to Ethical decision Making, Journal of rail line Ethics 14(11), 909922. Retrieved from Proquest Database, viewed 5 May,14Garrett D. E., J. L., Bradford.,R. A. Meyers., J, Becker 1989 Issues Management and Organizational accounts An analysis of Corporate responses to Accusations of Unethical Business Practices, Journal of Business Ethics 8 (7), 507- 520, Retrieved from Proquest Database, viewed 6 May,14 Geert, H., Bond, M. H., Luk, C. L. (1993). Individual Perceptions of Organizational Cultures. Organization Studies, 14(4), pp. 483-503. Retrieved from ProquestDatabase, viewed 11 may,14 Hall, E.T. (1959). The unplumbed Language, New York Doubleday Lincoln, D., M. M. Pressey and T. Little 1982, Ethical Beliefs and Personal Values of Top Level Executives, Journal of Business enquiry (10), 475487Murphy Herta A., Effective Business Communication (7th Edition), Herbert W. Hildebrandt , Mc Graw- Hill.Nakano, Chiaki. Asian Business Management, suppl. Special Issue Nipponese Business Society in a Global Age6.2 (Jun 2007) 163-178. The Significance and limitations of Corporate Governance from the perspective of Business Ethics Towards the Creation of an Ethical Organizational Culture, Retrieved from Proquest Database, viewed on 10 May, 14. Vitell, S. J., et al, (1993), Marketing Norms The influence of personal moral philosophies and organizational ethical culture Journal of the academy of marketing science 21 (4), 331-337, Retrieved from Proquest Database, Viewed on 12 May,14. Yallapragada, RamMohan R. Roe, C. William Toma, Alfred G. Accounting fraud and white collar crimes in the US, Journal of Business Case Studies8.2 (2012) 187. Retrieved from Proquest Database, Viewed on 7 May,14.

Thursday, April 11, 2019

General Orders Essay Example for Free

General Orders EssayThe simple act of execute your duties in a military manner exit keep you out of more trouble in your career than just about anything else. Drill these in your head and let them become second nature.I will guard everything within the limits of my post and quit my post only when properly relieved. I will obey my special orders and perform all of my duties in a military manner. I will spread over violations of my special orders, emergencies, and anything non covered in my instructions to the commander of the relief. The Eleven General Orders are parking lot to all branches of the U.S. Armed Forces. It is best to learn these beforeboot camp you will be anticipate to know these by heart, in any order, after a few weeks in basic teach1. To take charge of this post and all government property in view. 2. To walk my post in a military manner, keeping always on the alert, and observing everything that takes place within sight or hearing. 3. To report all violat ions of orders I am instructed to enforce. 4. To repeat all calls from posts more distant from the guard tolerate than my own. 5. To quit my post only when properly relieved.6. To receive, obey, and pass on to the sentry who relieves me all orders from the commanding officer, playing area officer of the day, officer of the day, and officers and petty officers of the watch. 7. To talk to no one except in line of duty.8. To take a shit the alarm in case of fire or disorder. 9. To call the petty officer of the watch in any case not covered by instructions. 10. To salute all officers and all colors and standards not cased. 11. To be especially watchful at night, and during the time for challenging, to challenge all persons on or well-nigh my post, and to allow no one to pass without proper authority.

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

X-ray transient Essay Example for Free

X-ray temporary EssayThe good news is that at that place ar more binaries which display the possibility of a bare hole, that which is much stronger than in Cygnus X-1 (Lochner, 2006, p. 2). In the year 1975, an X-ray transient known as A0620-00 was discovered. In the mid-80s, it was found that the mass of this object was more than 3. 5 solar masses. This incident alone eradicates the possibility of a neuron star, since neuron stars usually possess solar masses of 1. 5. In fact, the discovery of A0620-00 may deliver put into question the feasibility of other theories. Nonetheless, the best finding regarding sable holes is V404 Cygni. This star was found to have an estimated 10 solar masses. Several journals have also written more or less the existence of black holes. In the 1995 edition of Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics,there was a review conducted by Kormendy and Richstone, which implied the octad galaxies were thought to have massive dark objects in the ir centers (Bunn, 1995, p. 1). These cores were found to have masses which range from 1 million to several billion times that of the sun.Their massiveness was determined by noting how the speed with which stars and gas pedal theater around the center of the galaxy the faster the orbital speeds, the stronger the gravitational force required to hold the stars and gas in their orbits (Bunn, 1995, p. 1). In fact, this is how astronomy usually measures masses. There are two reasons why these massive galactic centers were deemed as black holes. To begin with, the centers are too dense and dark (Bunn, 1995, p. 1) to even be considered as a group of stars, or just now merely stars.Second, the only promising theory to explain the puzzling objects known as quasars and active galaxies postulates that such galaxies have supermassive black holes at their cores (Bunn, 1995, p. 1). Even though these reasons blot out that the galactic centers are really black holes, there is no sufficient evidence to canvass it. Nonetheless, there is a continuous discovery for proofs that systems do include black holes. According to Bunn (1995), a close active galaxy was found to have a water maser system (a very powerful character reference of microwave radiation) near its nucleus.Using the technique of very-long-baseline interferometry, a group of researchers was able to map the velocity dissemination of the gas with very fine re answer (p. 1). They also determined that the velocity was less than half a light-year of the center of the galaxy (Bunn, 1995, p. 1). It is from this fact that they deemed the object as a black hole, simply because only a black hole can have that much mass concent calculated in such a small volume (Bunn, 1995, p. 1).All these results are included in January 12, 1995 issue of Nature, vol. 373. , as was reported by Miyoshi et al (Bunn, 1995, p.1). Is there a possibility that the lie can be a black hole? No. According to Bunn (1995), only stars that we igh considerably more than the fair weather end their lives as black holes (p. 1). For about five billion years, the Sun will remain in its present state. After that, the Sun will undergo a phase wherein it will be a red giant star. The Sun will then end its life as a white dwarf star. If there are black holes, are there white ones? According to Bunn (1995), the equations of general relativity have an interesting numerical property they are symmetric in time.That means that you can take any solution to the equations and gauge that time flows backwards rather than forwards, and youll get another valid solution to the equations. If you apply this rule to the solution that describes black holes, you get an object known as a white hole (p. 1). If a black hole then pulls objects in, a white hole would then push things out. The former sucks in, the latter spits out. However, there is no proof that white holes exist, and there are no studies to point out if their existence is a possibi lity. There has also been speculations about the existence of what is called worm holes.What is a worm hole? It is a notional opening in space-time that one could use to travel to far away places very apace (Lochner, 2006, p. 2). It is characterized by two copies of the black hole geometry connected by a throat the throat, or passageway, is called an Einstein-Rosen span (Lochner, 2006, p. 2). As is indicated in the definition, it is merely theoretical. There is no scientific basis nor experimental evidence for such existence. However, it is indeed amazing to think that such existence is possible. Do black holes disappear or vaporize? Even astronomers are not sure as to how black holes end their existence.Bunn (1995) notes that Back in the 1970s, Stephen vending came up with theoretical arguments showing that black holes are not really entirely black ascribable to quantum-mechanical effects, they emit radiation. The energy that produces the radiation comes from the mass of t he black hole. Consequently, the black hole gradually shrinks. It turns out that the rate of radiation increases as the mass decreases, so the black hole continues to radiate more and more intensely and to shrink more and more rapidly until it presumably vanishes entirely (p. 1) This is a mere theory.There have been no proof or scientific conclusions as to how black holes really diminish. Black holes are just one of the many things included in the vast origination we are a part of. give thanks to science and the technological advancements at present, we can have greater awareness and knowledge of what is within our universe but beyond our reach.References Bunn, T. (1995). Black Hole FAQ List. Retrieved December 13, 2007, from http//cosmology. berkeley. edu/Education/BHfaq. html. Lochner, J. (2007). Black Holes. Retrieved December 13, 2007, from http//imagine. gsfc. nasa. gov/docs/science/know_l2/black_holes. html.

Monday, April 8, 2019

Therapies Approaches Essay Example for Free

Therapies Approaches EssayWhat are the major strengths and weaknesses of the following admittancees to therapy?(A) Psychoanalysis The of import goal of psychoanalysis is to resolve internal conflicts that lead to emotional suffering. Traditional psychoanalysis called for three to tail fin therapy sessions a week, however, treatment may still go on for years for the sake of increasing the lotion and the accuracy of the analysis of the behavioral development of the clients attended with through the said therapy.Today through the masking of the new approaches of psychology, the said therapy has already been briefed to be equal to(p) to give ample and accurate solutions to issues that clients are vatic to take into consideration. This therapy is then noted for its capability to analyze the different factors that contribute to the situations that clients are primarily knotted with. However, with the lengthened way of applying the process, finding solutions becomes less applic ative in this manner of psychological approach.(B) Person-centered therapy Individual-focused, this is the characteristic of this particular(prenominal) approach. Since it is individual, the subject becomes more concise and much easier to identify. Having to deal with the issue through the singularity of the subject actually notes the possibility of being more specific with the solutions that are formulated along the application of the therapy. However, being one at a time centered makes the approach less broad.(C) Behavior therapy Behavior centered therapy incites the importance of approaching the problem through knowing who and how the person or the client is dealing with the situations that he is facing in life. Through this therapy, the run of the situation shall be based on the ideal character of the person being dealt with. This makes the process of sagaciousness the problem more accurate and more efficient.(D) Cognitive therapy This therapy actually notes the process of using the attitudes and reactions of the clients to be able to create the most possible solution available for the problem to be answered. Considerably, cognitive therapy is actually an approach that estimates the specific manner by which people react to the different issues that they deal with everyday. Although effective in umteen ways, it is indeed noticeable how this particular therapy is subjected to around issues since people change every now and then.(E) Drug therapy practice of medicine may not be as effective as expected all the time. At some point, this process may even result to a more complicated problem that could be collect to overdose. Although helpful, too many limitations should be considered in pursuing this particular approach in psychological therapy.ReferencesSamuel E. Wood, Ellen colour Wood, and Denise Boyd. (2007). Mastering the World of Psychology (3rd Edition) (MyPsychLab Series). Allyn Bacon 3 edition.

Sunday, April 7, 2019

Accident Analysis Essay Example for Free

Accident Analysis EssayIn January 25, 1990, Avianca Flight 52, a Boeing 707 left Bogota, Colombia for untried York. After more than an hour of delay, the plane ran out of force out and jamed in the town of Cove Neck, Long Island, innovative York, killing 73 people, including 9 crew members and 65 of the 149 passengers, and injuring the rest. Analysis of this accident would show how human error, imperfect systems and bad weather conditions caused this accident.The feather crew did not officially declare that they were running out of force out until it was already too late. The accident could hurt been avoided if the dodging crew has clearly stated that they were really in trouble. Language barrier could make believe played a part since the crew single asked for priority which in Spanish could mean that they were in trouble. The crew should have notified their fuel load to Air occupation mince when they were put on hold for the first duration. This simple information could have made the difference.ATC could have suggested earlier an alternate airport had they known this information. Instead, the pilots literally went around in circles waiting for further instructions. By the time the flight was cleared for landing, it only had enough fuel for one last approach. When the plane was on its last-place approach, it encountered wind shear, a change of wind direction over short distances. ATC only informed the flight crew of wind shear at 1500 feet. The crew had to abort their approach because they would fall short of the runway. The flight was doomed after that incident. Even if they were redirected to an alternate airport prior to the approach, they would not have enough fuel to make it to Boston.The question now is why the flight crew didnt consult their flight fire about possible alternate airports which are not as busy as the John F. Kennedy International. The attend to maybe the breaking of the sterile cockpit rule below 10,000 feet. The ster ile cockpit rule below 10,000 feet states that pilots should not talk of the town about things that are not necessary during crucial stages of the flight, which is usually below 10,000 feet. The pilots mind may have wandered off due to the long delay the Air Traffic Control has given them.In a sense, Air Traffic Control failed to prioritize air traffic in JFK international. Though Avianca flight 52 did not declare its fuel load problems earlier, it did say that it wanted priority. In like mentioned earlier, due to expression barrier, priority may have been already a distress call. Air Traffic Control substantiate this request but what kind of priority is a seventy seven minute delay?Obviously, the harm of the flight crew and Air Traffic Control to communicate properly resulted to this horrible accident. This accident could have been avoided if the airline had their own operational control dispatch system that could have assisted them when Air Traffic Control has apparently ignor ed them. A standardized terminology in fuel related problems withal contributed to the planes crash. If there was only a universal term to describe what the flight was very experiencing, the language barrier between Air Traffic Control and the pilots would have been irrelevant.To sum up, the plane crash was a result of contributing factors, communication problems, probable mental lapse of the pilots, lack of proper terminology, and reproving winds. This accident proves that constant communication is important in air travel and a high take of concentration is required for the job. Pilots should be trained extensively before giving them their licences, including language training that ensures pilots squirt converse well in English. In this aspect, a standard language for aeronautical terms should be established. Though the wind shear caused further delay, the plane could have made another attempt if only it had not been idle for more than hour.